From Alfonso XIII to the present
1. Alfonso XIII and Primo de Rivera’s dictatorship.
- ALFONSO XIII. (1885-1931) When Alfonso XII died, his son was still unborn. His mother María Cristina acted as a regent until Alfonso XIII, at the age of sixteen, took over the government. (See figure).
There were two important figures in politics: Canovas, head of the conservative party, and Sagasta, head of the liberal party. By mutual agreement, they signed El Pardo agreement, by which they renounced to political struggles and turn the power. Their agreement solved the following problems:
+ Social problems. The socialists organized strikes, and the anarchists commited riots and murders.
+ Cataluña wanted to be an independent nation.
+ At this time, the Cuban insurrection happenned.
+ War with the United States. Cuba was declared independent and the Philiphines were given to United States, which paid twenty million dollars for them.
- PRIMO DE RIVERA’S DICTATORSHIP. On 23 September 1923 general Primo de Rivera led a coup d’état, starting his dictatorship. His government work was positive in some points:
+ The order was re-established, prosecuting gunmen and robbers.
+ The war in Africa ended with the Al-Hoceima disembark.
+ A plan of public works to employ workers was projected.
But, due to some attemps of militar rebellion and student riots, he quit from the Government.
Municipal elections are convened and, although monarchy triumphed, in the main cities the republics won. To avoid a bloodshed, Alfonso XIII resigned.
2. Write if the following events are about Alfonso XIII or Primo de Rivera: