From Alfonso XIII to the present
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Write on the right side what is missing.


   1. Alfonso XIII and Primo de Rivera’s dictatorship.

   - ALFONSO XIII. (1885-1931) When Alfonso XII died, his son was still unborn. His mother María Cristina acted as a regent until Alfonso XIII, at the age of sixteen, took over the government. (See figure).

   There were two important figures in politics: Canovas, head of the conservative party, and Sagasta, head of the liberal party. By mutual agreement, they signed El Pardo agreement, by which they renounced to political struggles and turn the power. Their agreement solved the following problems:

   + Social problems. The socialists organized strikes, and the anarchists commited riots and murders.

   + Cataluña wanted to be an independent nation.

   + At this time, the Cuban insurrection happenned.

   + War with the United States. Cuba was declared independent and the Philiphines were given to United States, which paid twenty million dollars for them.

   - PRIMO DE RIVERA’S DICTATORSHIP. On 23 September 1923 general Primo de Rivera led a coup d’état, starting his dictatorship. His government work was positive in some points:

   + The order was re-established, prosecuting gunmen and robbers.

   + The war in Africa ended with the Al-Hoceima disembark.

   + A plan of public works to employ workers was projected.

   But, due to some attemps of militar rebellion and student riots, he quit from the Government.

   Municipal elections are convened and, although monarchy triumphed, in the main cities the republics won. To avoid a bloodshed, Alfonso XIII resigned.

   2. Write if the following events are about Alfonso XIII or Primo de Rivera:

The order was re-established


There were socialists and anarchists


Al-Hoceima disembark


María Cristina was the regent


A Cuban insurrection


Plan of public works


A war in EEUU


Led a coup d’état


    3. The Second Republic and the Civil War

   - THE SECOND REPUBLIC. (1931-1936). After the fall of Primo de Rivera, the provisional government was directed by Alcala Zamora. During the first two years of the Republic, while Manuel Azaña was in charge of the country, many attacks against churches and convents happenned in Madrid.

   The elections of 1933 were won by right parties, specifically the CEDA, leaded by Jose Maria Gil Robles, but the left parties started an uprising, which was the origin of Asturias’ revolution.

   February 1936 elections gave the triumph to the left parties. Robberies and strikes were very common. Spanish Falange, leaded by José Antonio Primo de Rivera, appeared, and parliamentary member Calvo Sotelo was killed. This was the first sign to the National Uprising.

   The army conquered Badajoz, Toledo, Irún, San Sebastián, Bilbao, Santander and Asturias. The battles of Brunete, Teruel and Ebro river were particularly fierce. After the Battle of Ebro national troops conquered Cataluña and the remains of the Popular Front went off to France. At last, Madrid and Valencia fell. On 1 April 1939, the National army dispatch said: “The war is over”.

   4. Write if these events are part of the Republic or of the Civil War:

Attacks against churches and convents


Morocco army stirred


Leaded by general Franco


In 1933 the right party triumphed


En 1936 the left parties triumphed


Badajoz and Toledo were conquered


Calvo Sotelo was killed


Battles in Brunete and Teruel


    5. Spanish Constitution

   On 20 November 1975 Francisco Franco died. On 6 December 1978 Spanish citizens approved by a referendum the present Spanish Constitution.

   + It is the State fundamental law, and every governor and citizen must respect and apply it.

   + The State laws, the ones of an autonomous region or of a town hall must be agree with the Constitution.

   + The courts of justice and the Constitutional Court watch and ensure its compliance (see figure).

   Elections are held to choose:

   - The plenaries in the town halls and the mayors.

   - The assemblies or parliaments of the Parliament Communities, with their presidents and government.

   - The Courts, with the Congress and the Senate, from which the President and his ministers are elected.

   - The European Parliament.

   People can also have their say in a referendum.

   The rights and freedoms of the citizens are: the right to life, the right to personal freedom, right to the inviolability of the home, to the privacy of correspondence and communications, freedom of expression, freedom to come and go as you please, to set and run a business and freedom to profess and practice a religious faith.

   At the moment, there are 17 autonomous communities, and the cities of Ceuta and Melilla have their own statutes.

   6. Answer with true or false:

Franco died on 1978


The Constitution was approved in a referendum


The Constitucion was written in 1975


It is not a very important law


Everybody must respect and apply it


Elections in the town halls


Mayors are elected in the Congress


You can have your opinion in a referendum


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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
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