1. Napoleon wars.
At the time of the Revolution and the Empire many wars were happening. Some times there were originated by France, and other times they were promoted by bordering states.The mos dangerous enemy for France was England, which felt safe by the English Channel and by an enormous fleet leaded by Pitt.
- THE ALLIANCES. After Belgium ocupation by the French army some alliances were made:
+ First alliance, between England, Spain, Russia, Prussia and Egypt. France was unable to attack England, so it brought the war to Egypt, but the French squad failed.
+ Second alliance, between England, Austria, Russia and Turkey. Napoleon defeated them in the battle of Marengo.
+ Third alliance, between England and Spain. Napoleon tried to invade England, but he was defeated in Trafalgar.
+ Fourth alliance, between England, Prussia, Russia and Sweden. Napoleon proclaimed the Continental Blockade to prevent English trade with Europe, but the measure also harmed French economy.
+ Fifth alliace, between England, Spain, Portugal and Austria. The Spaniards defeated the English in Bailen.
- RUSSIA CAMPAIGN. Napoleon organized an army of 350.000 men, who attacked Russia. The Russians didn’t present battle, and the French army wasted men and resources in the frozen steppes. The soldiers died of starvation and cold, and only 15.000 men could return.
- THE FALL OF THE EMPIRE. The conquered countries revealed against Napoleon’s oppression and defeated him in the battle of Leipzig, which was called the Battle of the Nations. Napoleon, abandoned by his generals, abdicated and retired to the island of Elba. But he returned and unlawfully held the power for hundred days, and was defeated again in the battle of Waterloo. (See figure above). Napoleon was made prisioner and was sent to St Helena island, where he died after six years.
2. Write if the following events are refering to: alliances, Russian campaign or the fall of the Empire.