Philip II and the Counter Reformation


   1. Philip II

   He had a serious and reserved nature, however, with his children he was a loving father and worried about family issues. He was a very religious man and attended Mass every day. Juan Martinez, a professor at the University of Salamanca, gave him a solid education.

   Philip II was the most powerful monarch of his time. To the territories that he inherited from Charles V (excluding Germany and Austria), he included Portugal and his vast number of colonies in Africa, America and Asia. He also conquered Florida, La Plata region, the Philippines and other islands of Oceania. Therefore, it was said that the Spain of Philip II was the empire on which the sun never set.

At the end of his life he retired in the monastery of the Escorial, where he died.


   2. Indicate whether the statements are true or false:
 

He was a loving father

He had a cheerful character and was open

He was educated by a professor of Valladolid

He was the most powerful of his time

He dominated Germany and Austria

He added Portugal and his colonies

He conquered Florida and the Philippines

He annexed several islands of Asia

He retired in El Escorial


    3. The Wars

   - WITH FRANCE. The French, led by King Henry II, allied with the Pope and a war broke out. A portion of the troops went to Rome with the Duke of Alba, while other soldiers defeated the French at St. Quentin, near Paris. Philip II commemorated this victory by building the monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial with the architect Herrera. (See image).
   Eventually, the wars stopped and the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis was signed, which consolidated the marriage of Philip II with Elizabeth of Valois, daughter of Henry II, King of France.

   - WITH ENGLAND. Queen Elizabeth of England supported the protesters for political reasons, while across Europe Philip II defended the Catholic doctrine. This, coupled with attacks by English pirates, such as Francis Drake, led to the confrontation. Philip II prepared a large fleet, called the Invincible Armada, but the English had lighter ships and were better armed since they possessed canons with greater range than the Spanish. There was also a great storm that destroyed many vessels. The Spanish defeat was very serious, and thus the naval supremacy of Spain was lost.

   - WITH THE TURKS. Turkish pirates attacked ships and landed on the Spanish coasts devastating the coastal villages. The "Holy League" was created, which was composed by Venice, Pope Pius V and Spain. A special fleet was created and was led by Don Juan of Austria, brother of Philip II, who was defeated by the Turkish fleet in the Bay of Lepanto.

   - WITH THE GRANADIAN MOORISH. The Moorish were Moors who were baptized into Christianity and were considered Christian, but kept their costumes, customs, language and secretly practiced Islam. Philip II forbade this, and so the Moorish from Granada rebelled. Don Juan of Austria put a stop to the rebellion.


   4. Indicate whether the statement refers to the wars with: France, England, the Turks or the Moorish.

Queen Elizabeth supported the Protestants

They were Christians with Islamic beliefs

The Duke of Alba went to Rome

They were defeated at St. Quentin

The pirates attacked coastal villages

He beat the Invincible Armada

The Holy League was formed

The Granadians rebelled

Herrera built the monastery of the Escorial

Drake is a famous pirate






    5. Other initiatives of Philip II

    - THE UNION OF PORTUGAL TO SPAIN. After the death of King Don Sebastian and of Cardinal Henry, the Courts of Almeirin proclaimed King Philip II King of Portugal. The peninsular unit was established and the two great colonial empires merged.

   - THE SITUATION WITH PRINCE CHARLES. It seemed that this heir to the crown was abnormal and had traits of insanity and imbecility. He would get very violent when someone contradicted his stubbornness. Charles came in contact with the Flemish rebels, but Don Juan of Austria revealed the plan and Philip II ordered the arrest of the prince. Don Charles attempted suicide several times and died shortly after.


   6 Indicate if the statement refers to the union with Portugal or the Prince Charles situation:

He was abnormal

Courts of Almeirin

He contacted the Flemish rebels

King Sebastian died

He attempted suicide

The two empires merged


     7. The Counter Reformation

    The internal reform of the Church should have served three purposes:

   - To fix the Catholic doctrine against the points of the Protestants. This is why the Council of Trent

   - To oppose the spread of Protestantism. This contributed to the new religious orders, such as the Theatines, the Pious Schools, the Congregation of the Oratory and especially the Jesuits.

   - To punish heretics by reorganizing the Inquisition.


    8. Indicate whether the statements are true or false:

It needed internal reform

The doctrine was already fixed

The Vatican Council was convened

It planned to stop the spread of Protestantism

It respected heretics

It reorganized the Inquisition


     9. The Society of Jesus and the Council of Trent

    - THE SOCIETY OF JESUS was founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola. Struggling against the French, he was wounded at the siege of Pamplona. During his recovery, he read holy books and understood that true heroism was found within prayer and preaching. He studied intensely in Barcelona, Alcala, Salamanca and Paris. Along with Francisco Javier and five other friends, he made the vow to devote himself to the service of God, poverty and put himself under obedience to the Pope.

   - THE COUNCIL OF TRENT lasted eighteen years and two types of agreements were adopted:

    + Issues related to dogma, such as the obligation of good works for salvation, the value of the seven sacraments, the veneration of images, the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist and the spiritual principle of obedience to the Pope.

   + Issues related to discipline, such as maintaining ecclesiastical celibacy, cut abuses in the organization of the Church and the creation of the seminaries.


    10. Indicate if the statement refers to the Society of Jesus or the Council of Trent:

St. Ignatius of Loyola

It lasted eighteen years

Heroism is found within prayer

The obligation of good works

The presence of Jesus in the Eucharist

He read books of the saints

To maintain ecclesiastical celibacy

To consecrate one’s self to the service of God



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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
Plaza Playa de Aro, 3, 1º DO 44002-TERUEL