History of Rome

   1. Monarchy and republic

   The Romans assimilated the great culture of Greece and were also the creators of an empire, which was divided into provinces that were the basis of the new nationalities.

   We can distinguish four historical moments:

   - The origins of Roman history: According to legend, Romulus founded Rome in 753 B. C. In the picture, we can see the Capitoline wolf nursing Romulus and Remus. In the Italian peninsula different people lived. The first inhabitants were the Ligurians (Neolithic). Then, there was an invasion of italiotes (2000 B. C.). The invasion of the Indo-Aryan people was in 1000 B. C. (Iron Age).

   The Etruscans occupied Italy largely and the Greeks established colonies in Sicily and in southern Italy. Rome was born when the Etruscans conquered the seven hills made to watch invasions.

   - The monarchy was the primitive government of Rome. There were three Etruscan kings that surrounded the city with walls and constructed monumental buildings. The king was army chief and high priest. In the government, he was helped by the Senate and the Curia who were all the inhabitants of the city, except the slaves.

   - The republic, around 509 B. C. there was a social crisis among Latins (ancient people) and the Etruscans (the dominating). Latins triumphed and proclaimed the republic.

  The social organization distinguishes: the patricians, who were rich, and the plebeian or the poor. The latter chose to strike and to found a new city. But they came to an agreement and obtained the same rights.

   - The empire was created by Octavian Augustus Caesar in 27 B.C.


   2. Indicate if these sentences refer to the origin, to the monarchy or to the republic:
 

It was inhabited by the Ligurian

There were three Etruscan kings

Crisis between Latins and Etruscans

The army chief and the priest

The patricians were rich

Invasion of the italiotes

Plebeians were poor

There was a Senate and Curias

The Greeks were in Sicily


    3. Punic Wars and Roman expansion

   In North Africa, the city of Carthage had organized a strong Carthaginian Empire which prevented the expansion of Rome. Wars between Rome and Carthage are called Punic Wars. They were three:

   - In the First Punic War, the Romans took control of Sicily.

   - In the second Punic War, the Carthaginians decided to conquer the Iberian Peninsula and with Hannibal, they crossed the Pyrenees and the Alps coming close to Rome, but they did not take control of it. The Romans attacked Ampurias (Spain) and then Carthage, where they won in the Battle of Zama.

   - In the third Punic War, Scipio Aemilianus took control of the city of Cartago and then he destroyed it.

   Roman expansion: The Romans conquered the territories around the Mediterranean in order to transform it into a Roman lake, that is, in the “Mare Nostrum" or our sea.

   Macedonia, Greece, Syria and finally Egypt annexed. But these great conquests had negative consequences: on contact with the Eastern world, the customs changed. Wars enriched a few publicans and ruined most of smallholders. This caused many rebellions. Everything about oriental became in fashion, immorality grew and the Romans lost the virtues that built up their glory.

  Two Triumvirates were formed: the first one was formed by Caesar, Pompey and Crassus, but Caesar was dictator for life. He was assassinated by Brutus and Cassius.

   The Second one was formed by Mark Antony, Octavian and Lepidus, it also failed. Octavio took absolute control of the Empire.


   4. Indicate if these sentences refer to the Punic Wars or to the roman expansion:

Wars between Rome and Carthage

They got the Mare Nostrum

They took control of Sicily

Hannibal crossed the Pyrenees and the Alps

Rome conquered Macedonia and Greece

Customs changed

Scipio destroyed Carthage

Two Triumvirates were formed






 

 

 

    5. Empire and decline

  Octavius Caesar Augustus was Caesar's nephew and was proclaimed emperor of Rome (See side picture). He assumed all powers: as proconsul, he administered the provinces; as emperor, he was chief of the army; as a tribune, he was inviolable and as high priest, he was the head of the religion. The Senate granted him the title of Augustus or sacred, giving him divine honors. His work of government was very positive: he embellished Rome and fought against the immorality of customs.

   Augusto pacified provinces and began a long period of peace and prosperity in which flourished the culture and arts. This time of I and II centuries A.C is called the Pax Romana. The trade developed and the Empire was organized.

The successors of Augustus extended the boundaries of the Empire. Thus, Titus conquered Jerusalem and Trajan expanded the conquests to the north of the Danube. His successor Hadrian established the border of the Empire in the Euphrates River.

  Decline: Foreign nations bordering the Empire, whom they called barbarians, were more powerful and some of them had peacefully set within the Empire.

   From the II century A. C. a large military anarchy became widespread. Diocletian strengthened the authority of the emperors and Theodosius divided the empire into two parts: the Eastern Roman Empire and the Western Roman Empire.

   The invasions of the barbarians became increasingly violent and Germanic people took control of the city of Rome in 467 A. C. Thus the Western Roman Empire disappeared.


   6. Indicate if these sentences refer to the Empire or to the decline:

Augustus assumed all powers

The Senate named him August

The barbarians were foreign

The government of August was positive

Some barbarians were at the Empire

There was great military anarchy

Trajan extended the conquests

Hadrian arrived to the Euphrates

Theodosius divided the empire into two

The Pax Romana lasted two centuries

The Germans conquered Rome

Rome disappeared in 476 A. C.



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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
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