History of Rome
1. Monarchy and republic
The Romans assimilated the great culture of Greece and were also the creators of an empire, which was divided into provinces that were the basis of the new nationalities.
We can distinguish four historical moments:
- The origins of Roman history: According to legend, Romulus founded Rome in 753 B. C. In the picture, we can see the Capitoline wolf nursing Romulus and Remus. In the Italian peninsula different people lived. The first inhabitants were the Ligurians (Neolithic). Then, there was an invasion of italiotes (2000 B. C.). The invasion of the Indo-Aryan people was in 1000 B. C. (Iron Age).
The Etruscans occupied Italy largely and the Greeks established colonies in Sicily and in southern Italy. Rome was born when the Etruscans conquered the seven hills made to watch invasions.
- The monarchy was the primitive government of Rome. There were three Etruscan kings that surrounded the city with walls and constructed monumental buildings. The king was army chief and high priest. In the government, he was helped by the Senate and the Curia who were all the inhabitants of the city, except the slaves.
- The republic, around 509 B. C. there was a social crisis among Latins (ancient people) and the Etruscans (the dominating). Latins triumphed and proclaimed the republic.
The social organization distinguishes: the patricians, who were rich, and the plebeian or the poor. The latter chose to strike and to found a new city. But they came to an agreement and obtained the same rights.
- The empire was created by Octavian Augustus Caesar in 27 B.C.
2. Indicate if these sentences refer to the origin, to the monarchy or to the republic: