Europe in the Seventeenth Century
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   1. The Kingdom of Philip III

   - INTERIOR POLITICS. The imperial age of Spain ends with Philip II. There was a rapid decline since the wars had depopulated territories and ruined the economy.

   Philip III was the son of Philip II and Queen Anne of Austria. He was a weak and unwilling king, who was a good citizen but not a good monarch. He left the government in the hands of the Duke of Lerma, who was a crook and lacked talent, worrying about becoming rich at the expense of the State. When you thought he was going to be expelled, he was named Cardinal. The people said: "He dressed in red to avoid being hanged."

   The most known event was the expulsion of the Moorish. Although they had been baptized and became Christians, Muslims continued to practice their rituals. They were chased by the Inquisition and had to pay special and burdensome taxes. They maintained relations with the Barbary pirates and the Turks whom they gave reports to in order to help them with their plots. Therefore, the decision was made to expel them. From the economic point of view, this measure was detrimental to national interests.

   - In regard to FOREIGN POLICY, he was attentive in maintaining peace, although there were some wars.

   + In Flanders, they revolted again but they reached the Twelve Years' Truce.

   + In England, there were friendly relations after Elizabeth’s death.

   + The relations with France were also positive due to the marriages between the two royal houses.

   + In Italy, the city of Venice prepared the "conspiracy of Venice" but failed.


   2. Answer if the statement refers to internal or foreign matters:
 

Era hijo de Ana de Austria

 

They reached the Twelve Years’ Truce

 

The Duke of Lerma was chosen

 

He was weak and unwilling

 

A friendship developed with England

 

They expelled the Moorish

 

Venice prepared a conspiracy

 

    3. Philip IV

   He was very sympathetic but an unwilling king. He was unable to do anything constructive, so as king he was a calamity.

   - INTERNALLY. The first that took over the government was the Count-Duke of Olivares, who was a man of goodwill, bright and very active, but had no statesmanship. He had great ideas but not realizable. The second was Don Louis of Haro, nephew of Olivares who did not want or could not do anything right.

   Philip IV increased taxes and therefore almost all regions aspired to be independent. In Catalonia, the reapers entered Barcelona and killed the viceroy and proclaimed the French king Louis XIII the Count of Barcelona. In the end, it all worked out.

   In Portugal, the Duke of Braganza was proclaimed king under the name of John IV. Years later, the independence of Portugal was recognized under Charles II.

   - ABROAD there were disastrous wars:

   + In the Netherlands, the Peace of Westphalia was signed, which recognized independence.

   + Relations with England were negative since the English king Charles I could not marry Mary because he was a Protestant.

   + There were frequent clashes with France since Cardinal Richelieu was the greatest enemy of Spain. In the Peace of the Pyrenees, Spain gave away large parts of its territories to France.

   + The famous Tercio (the “thirds”) were defeated at the Battle of Rocroi during the Thirty Years War.

   + In Italy, the enmity with Venice continued and there was a rebellion in Naples.


    4. Answer if these statements happened internally or abroad:

The first chosen one was Olivares

 

The king was friendly and unwilling

 

There was enmity against Venice

 

The reapers entered Barcelona

 

The Peace of the Pyrenees was signed

 

Cardinal Richelieu was an enemy

 

The other chosen one was Louis of Haro

 

Charles I did not marry Mary

 

All regions wanted independence

 

The Tercio were defeated at Rocroi

 

    5. Charles II

   - INTERNALLY. This king was born so weak, it is said, that he grew up amongst cotton. He grew up between women and received no proper education. He was shy and only worried about his health.

   With his first wife, Marie Louise of Orleans, he had no child even after ten years of marriage. With the second wife, the German Maria Anna of Neuburg, an heir was also not conceived.

   His mother, Maria Anna of Austria was the one who governed at first, but she lacked the necessary conditions to continue.

   The first chosen one was the confessor of the Regent, the German Jesuit Nithard, who had goodwill and was hard working; however, due to being German, he did not enjoy sympathy in general. John of Austria, the illegitimate son of Philip IV told him that if the confessor did not go out through the door on Monday, on Tuesday he and his people would throw him out the window. Before this, Nithard left.

   The second chosen one was Fernando de Valenzuela who did nothing remarkable.

   The third was John of Austria, who in three years of governing did not accomplish anything positive.

   Before he died, Charles II decided to appoint Philip of Anjou the heir, who was the grandson of Louis XIV King of France.

   - ABROAD, the great enemy was Louis XIV of France, who continued the attacks started by Richelieu and Mazarin. He said that the crowns of France and Spain did not fit in Europe, so it was necessary for Spain to succumb to France’s triumph. They had three wars and had to concede to France very vast territories.

  


   6. Indicate whether these statements happened internally or abroad:

Louis XIV was the great enemy

 

He grew up among women

 

He had no education

 

There could be no two crowns in Europe

 

The first chosen one was the confessor Nithard

 

There were three wars

 

France gained large territories

 

He was succeeded by the grandson of Louis XIV

 

     7. Evolution of European states

   - FRANCE. When Henry IV died, Louis XIII was nine years old so Cardinal Richelieu took the throne. The Cardinal would say: "I intend to destroy the Calvinists, lower the pride of the nobles, strengthen the power of the king and raise France to a position of dominance in Europe and collapse the strength of Spain."
   He achieved it all. Since Louis XIV was under age, the power was then given to Cardinal Mazarin who continued to implement the previous policies. Louis XIV was a great king, who was called the "Sun King", and his will had a force equivalent to the law. He said: "I am the state." (See the image).

   - ENGLAND. They advanced in the political realm after a whole century, since the parliament considerably limited the royal power. Charles I was a supporter of an absolute monarchy but he was defeated by the parliament.

   - THE GERMAN EMPIRE and the Origins of Prussia. The Thirty Years’ War and the Peace of Westphalia annihilated the authority of the emperor who had divided the empire into several States, which ruled themselves. Prussia then achieved great importance, from being a family of gentlemen of secondary importance to becoming monarchs.

   - POLAND. It was a large state with a noble anarchy and weak kings. The nobles proclaimed an elective monarchy, thus making the kings buy their election by way of giving concessions to the nobles.

   - RUSSIA. Ivan III the Great was the unifier of the country and went to Europe for his marriage to Sophia Palaiologina, niece of the last Byzantine emperor. Ivan IV the Terrible was characterized by his great cruelty. After his death there was a period of turmoil and Michael Romanov began the Romanov Dynasty, which ruled Russia from 1613 until the arrival of the communist regime in 1917.

   - THE DECLINE OF THE TURKS. After Suleiman the Magnificent and Selim II, the power of the Turks diminished. The Janissaries soldiers lost their military virtues and the intrigues around the harem weakened the character of the sultans.


     8. Indicate which country the statement refers to: France, England, German Empire, Poland, Russia or Turkey.
 

The Empire was divided into several states

 

Cardinal Richelieu governed

 

There was a political evolution

 

Cardinal Mazzarino ruled

 

Prussia became important

 

The parliament took the power

 

There was a noble anarchy

 

The Janissaries lost virtues

 

Ivan III the Great reigned

 

There was an elective monarchy

 




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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
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