The Religious Wars
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   1. The Struggles in the Netherlands

   The Protestant Reformation broke the spiritual unity of the Middle Ages and led to a series of wars with extraordinary cruelty for an entire century.

   Although Charles I was born in Ghent, a city of the Netherlands, the Spanish dominance was not well received by the Flemings, who complained of religious persecution against the Calvinists. William of Nassau, Prince of Orange, signed the Compromise of Breda with the nobles to ask the regent Margaret of Parma the abolition of the Inquisition. During this time, the Calvinists sacked more than four hundred convents in a period of four days. This caused the rebellion.

   The development of the uprising. Philip II granted the command of the army to the Duke of Alba and to the Tribunal of Riots and ordered the execution of thousands of Flemish. (See image). The Prince of Orange assembled an army of Calvinists and the war began. Philip II took the Duke of Alba out of the command and replaced him with Don Luis of Requesens, Don John of Austria and Alexander Farnese succeeded. At the end, Philip II ceded the Netherlands to his daughter Isabella Clara Eugenia, who was married to the Archduke Albert.

   2. Indicate whether the statements are true or false:

Charles I was born in Ghent


There were persecutions against the followers of Zwingli


William of Nassau was the Prince of Orange


They signed the Compromise of Caspe


Calvinists sacked 400 convents


They executed thousands of Flemish


    3. Anglicanism in England

   Henry VIII was a very fickle king. (See the image). He married six times and the first five wives were killed by the executioner or were abandoned. He was married to Catherine of Aragon, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabel; however, he was in love with Anne Boleyn with whom he wanted to marry. He asked the Pope for the annulment of his marriage, but it was not granted. He then decided to separate England from the obedience to the Pope, naming himself the head of the English Church and Anglicanism was born. Anne Boleyn died beheaded three years later.

   He was succeeded by his son Edward VI and later by his sister Mary, who married Philip II. Hence there was a Catholic reaction that led to the bloody persecution of Protestants, many of whom died beheaded.

   After the death of Mary, Elizabeth succeeded the throne; she was called the Virgin Queen. She was the daughter of Anne Boleyn and had a sad youth. With regard to religion, she was indifferent; however, as she was an enemy of Philip II, she sided with the Protestants. She fought against Spain and the English boats defeated the Invincible Armada.

   4. Indicate whether these statements are true or false:

Henry VIII had a strong will power


He was married to Catherine of Aragon


He married seven times


He was in love with Anne Boleyn


The Pope granted him the divorce


He established Anglicanism


There was a bloody Catholic reaction


Elizabeth was the enemy of Charles I


    5. The Wars with France

  Henry II was succeeded by his three sons: Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III. All three were less intelligent and with had a weak will power. They let themselves be governed or by their mother or by the groups of nobles who sometimes favored the Catholics and other times the Protestants. This unwillingness of the kings was very negative for France.

   Three killings of the time can be distinguished:

   - THE KILLING OF VALMY occurred when the Catholic Duke Francis of Guise entered the village of Valmy and met some Calvinists who were celebrating biblical psalms. There was an argument and he killed most of the Calvinists.

   - THE NIGHT OF SAINT BARTHOLOMEW. Catholics sought help from Philip II and the Calvinists from Elizabeth of England. The troops of Guise committed murder on 24 August 1572, which was the day of the celebration of St. Bartholomew for most of the Calvinists who lived in Paris and in other cities. (See the image).

   - THE KILLING OF TOURS. Calvinists reorganized themselves and killed hundreds of Catholics in Tours under terrible conditions.

   Henry III named Henry of Bourbon the heir, who was a Calvinist and the King of Navarre. The Catholics, therefore, did not recognize him. Later Henry of Bourbon, an unscrupulous man, converted to Catholicism and said, "Paris is worth a mass." Philip II recognized him as king and the religious wars ended.

   6. Answer if the statements refer to the killing of Valmy, the Saint Bartholomew massacre or Tours:

It happened on 24 August 1572


The Calvinists reorganized themselves


There were Calvinists singing psalms


Catholics sought help from Philip II


Francis Duke of Guise entered a village


They killed hundreds of Catholics


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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
Plaza Playa de Aro, 3, 1º DO 44002-TERUEL