Charles I and the Reform
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    1. Charles I

  Charles of Austria is the major figure in the political history of the first half of the XVI century. He was born in 1500 in Flanders and was the son of Philip the Handsome (who was the son of Emperor Maximilian I of Germany) and Juana the Crazy (the daughter of the Catholic Monarchs). He inherited four fabulous lands: Spain (Castile, Aragon, the Kingdom of Naples and the lands of America), Burgundy (with the Netherlands, the Free County of Burgundy and Luxembourg), Austria and the Milanese. (Refer to the map).

   He also acquired the right to be elected to the German imperial crown. In 1519, he was elected Emperor of Germany and therefore called Charles I of Spain and V of Germany. He possessed the largest known empire and had a clear priority: the defense of Christianity.


   2. Indicate whether the statements are true or false:

Charles I was born in Germany

 

He was the son of Philip the Handsome and Juana the Crazy

 

He had five inheritances

 

He was the grandson of the Catholic Monarchs

 

The Netherlands were in Austria

 

He was elected Emperor when he was 19 years old

 

    3. The Wars

    The Government in Spain had difficulties (Communities and germanium) and there were struggles with France and the Turks.

   - THE COMMUNITIES. When Charles came to Spain, he did not know Castilian Spanish and had distributed government positions among his Flemish friends who had accompanied him. This caused great discontent in the cities of Castilla, especially when he went to Germany to be crowned Emperor, causing the revolt of the Communities. The nobles, the bourgeoisie and the peasants revolted against the bad governors and organized an army, which was led by Juan Padilla. However, the royal army crushed the community army in Villalar, while the three leaders, Padilla, Bravo and Maldonado, were taken prisoner and executed.

   - THE GERMANIES. It was a movement of the masses of Valencia and Mallorca against the nobility. They did not agree on the protection that the nobility provided to the Moors, for example, in some cases they were paying less taxes than the Christians. This movement was suppressed.

   - THE WARS WITH FRANCE. Francis I did not accept that Charles was proclaimed Emperor of Germany, since he also aspired to that position. He seized Milan and war was inevitable. Francis was taken prisoner at the battle of Pavia. He later allied himself with the Pope and the Turks against Charles I.

   - THE STRUGGLES WITH THE TURKS. Suleiman the Magnificent led the Turks in their invasion of Europe. They seized Belgrade, which was part of Hungary, and besieged Vienna. The army of Charles I was defeated. The pirate Barbarossa ruined the trade for the Mediterranean, however he was able to stop them and conquered Tunisia and other places.

  Charles I gave his son Philip the sovereignty of the Netherlands, Sicily and the mainland territories. He also resigned the imperial crown in favor of his brother Ferdinand. Charles I retired to the monastery of Yuste and died in September 1558.


   4. Indicate whether these statement refer to the: Communities, Germanies, France or the Turks.

They revolted in Valencia and Mallorca

 

Francis I aspired to be the Emperor

 

Juan Padilla led an army

 

Suleiman the Magnificent was the leader

 

They seized Milan

 

The nobles protected the Moors

 

They were defeated in Villamar

 

Barbarossa fought in the Mediterranean

 

Padilla, Bravo and Maldonado were executed

 

He was defeated at the Battle of Pavia

 

Charles won Tunisia

 

Movement against the nobility

 

    5. The Reformation and Martin Luther

   The Reformation was a religious movement that broke the unity of the Western civilization. Its followers were called Protestants.

   By the end of the Middle Ages, there was a need to organize the Church in order to cut the abuses that were going on. The spirit of robbery of the German princes favored the spread of the Reformation in Germany. The church owned a third of the German soil and as Protestantism was being adopted, these territories became secularized and were passed into the hands of the princes. The Reformation was a way of getting rich by seizing the property of the clergy.

   The propeller of the Reformation was Martin Luther, an Augustinian friar of the convent of Wittenberg. He was concerned about the problem of eternal salvation, believing that man could not save himself and that man is saved by faith, regardless of his behavior and his works. (See image of Martin Luther).

  In Germany, the bull of indulgences was being implemented in order to pay for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. Luther wrote the Ninety-Five Theses against indulgences and other issues, and was able to get the support of the German princes. Pope Leo X (1520) excommunicated him.


    6. Indicate whether these statements are true or false:

Its followers were called Protestants

 

The Church needed reforms

 

Abuses were committed

 

The German princes became rich

 

The church had half of the land

 

Martin Luther was a Dominican friar

 

He worried about eternal salvation

 

The Basilica of Florence was built

 

Luther wrote the Ninety-Five Theses

 

Pope Leo X excommunicated him

 

    7. The Protestant Doctrine

   It can be summarized in the following points:

   - Man is saved by faith, regardless of his works. It was said that man can err but still believe in God. This is contrary to the Catholic doctrine that requires faith and good works.

   - Everyone can interpret the Bible to one’s own liking. This point has long divided the Protestants.

   - The removal of monastic vows and the celibacy of the clergy.

   - Disregard of the authority of the Pope.

   - Denial of the cult of saints and the virginity of Mary.

   - Denial of the value of the sacraments, retaining only baptism and the Eucharist as a remembrance of the Last Supper.


    8. Charles V and Protestantism

   The emperor tried to solve the heresy peacefully by summoning assemblies or Diets, such as the ones held in Woms, Spira and Augsburg. However, it was not possible to reach an agreement. As war was declared, he beat the Protestants in Mulberg, but eventually signed the Peace of Augsburg, which consecrated the triumph of Protestantism in Germany.

    - ZWINGLI was a pastor of Glarus (Switzerland) and his character was extreme and violent. He preached the doctrine of predestination, by which God chose those who He wanted to save. Catholics opposed Zwingli. He died at the Battle of Kappel.

   - JOHN CALVIN founded Calvinism and had an uncompromising character. Calvin established a rigid dictatorship based on scrupulous moral in Geneva: playing cards, dancing and drinking wine were forbidden.


     9. Indicate whether these facts refer to: Calvin or Zwingli.

He was a pastor of Glarus (Switzerland)

 

He was extremely violent

 

His character was uncompromising

 

His doctrine was based on predestination

 

He established a rigid dictatorship

 

He died in the Battle of Kappel

 

He forbade playing cards

 

He established a scrupulous moral

 




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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
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