The Crusades
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   1. The Crusades

   The Crusades were expeditions organized by Christians of the West, who had the protection of the Popes, with the objective to free the Holy Sepulchre as well as defend and found the kingdom of Jerusalem.

   What were the causes of this movement?

   - The great religiosity of Europe.

   - The need to liberate Jerusalem from Turkish rule, which denied the entry to the city of Christian pilgrims who wished to visit.

   - The adventurous and chivalrous spirit of the age.

   - The attractiveness that the East had at the time.

   2. Indicate whether each statement is true or false:

They sought to liberate Rome


They were expeditions organized by Christians


They wanted to rescue the Holy Sepulchre


The Normans were denied the entry


There was great religiosity in Europe


They had an adventurous spirit


The attractiveness that the East had at the time


In order to found the kingdom of Jerusalem


    3. The Major Crusades

   They were conducted during the XI, XII and XIII centuries and the main eight were:

   - FIRST CRUSADE. Pope Urban II proposed the re-conquest of the Holy Sepulchre. The people shouted: "God willing, God willing!" Two groups were organized: the Crusade of the poor, formed by people without weapons and without preparation - this group failed - and the other one was formed by warriors, which took Jerusalem by assault. Godfrey, who was leading, was proclaimed the king of Jerusalem.

   - SECOND CRUSADE. The Emperor of Germany and the King of France participated, who besieged the city of Damascus but left without taking it.

   - THIRD CRUSADE. They went to recover Jerusalem, which had fallen in the hands of Saladin the Muslim. They were not able to conquer the city, however, Saladin authorized the entry to the city by Christians as pilgrims.

   - FOURTH CRUSADE. Their goal was to re-conquer Jerusalem, but the Venetians changed route and went towards Constantinople, which fell under the power of the Crusaders and established the Latin Empire.

   - FIFTH CRUSADE. Given past failures, they thought that this was due to the sins of the Crusaders and so they organized the Children's Crusade, which was composed by children, that is, pure and sinless human beings. However, it did not produce positive results. Hundreds of children were captured by the Turks and reduced to slavery. Another maritime expedition was organized but also failed.

   - SIXTH CRUSADE. Frederick II, Emperor of Germany, led this crusade and instead of fighting, he organized negotiations and won the cities of Jerusalem, Nazareth and Bethlehem. But he had little guard and the Turks once again took them.

   - SEVENTH CRUSADE. It was led by St. Louis, King of France; however, due to epidemics and hunger, the Crusaders had to surrender.

   - EIGHTH CRUSADE. It was the most miserable of all. They suffered a terrible epidemic while besieging Tunis and King St. Louis died.

   4. Answer to which Crusade the statement refers to:

Jerusalem was in the hands of Saladin


Pope Urban II proposed it


They went to Constantinople


They besieged the city of Damascus


The crusade of the poor failed


They founded the Latin Empire


The Emperor of Germany


Saladin allowed the entry of the pilgrims


The Children's Crusade was organized


It was the most miserable Crusade


Instead of fighting, they negotiated


They obtained Jerusalem, Nazareth and Bethlehem


They suffered hunger and epidemics


They besieged Tunis


Hundreds of children were enslaved


King St. Louis died


    5. Consequences of the Crusades

   From the military point of view, the Crusades were a failure because they did not conquer the Holy Places or created the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

   But POLITICALLY, they caused the decline of feudalism, since the nobles and gentlemen who intervened were led to ruins and this favored the development of a new social class: the bourgeoisie, the owners of money.

   From the ECONOMIC point of view, the Crusades boosted trade and favored agriculture by introducing unknown plants in Europe, such as saffron and the silkworm. Industry was also promoted.

    6. Indicate whether these facts relate to a military, political or economic aspect:

Trade was boosted


The Crusades were a failure


The decline of feudalism


Unknown plants brought


The nobles and gentlemen were ruined


They did not conquer the Holy Land


The bourgeoisie was created


Industry was encouraged


The kingdom of Jerusalem was not created


They favored agriculture


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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
Plaza Playa de Aro, 3, 1º DO 44002-TERUEL