Eastern Europe
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Czech Republic

Population: 10,183,437 inhabitants Land surface: 78,870 km2 Currency: Czech Krone
GDP per capita: US$ 20.539
Language: Czech
Official name: Ceska Republika. Capital: Prague (Praha) 1,170,000 inhabitants (2003).
Other cities (inhabitants – 2000): Brno 382,800; Ostrava 320,900; Olomouc 102,800.
Government: parliamentary republic Religion: Catholics (39%), Protestants (4.3%), Orthodox (3%), and 40% of the population is atheist.

Geography. In the west of the country, the Bohemian Mountain extends limiting the southeast with the Moravia plain. Cereals and sugar beet are cultivated and cattle and sheep are bred in the lowlands. Rye and potatoes are cultivated in the Bohemian valleys. The region is rich in minerals: coal, lignite, uranium and graphite, while in Moravia there is coal.


Population: 38,022,140 inhabitants
Land surface: 312,685 km2
Currency: Polish Zloty
GDP per capita: US$ 13,847
Language: Polish
Official name: Polska Rzeczpospolita.
Capital: Warsaw (Warszawa) 2,200,000 inhabitants (2003).
Other cities (inhabitants – 2000): Lodz 1,017,300; Krakow 784,800; Wroclaw 634,600; Poznan 580,200.
Government: Bronisław Komorowski, president since August 2012
Religion: Most of the population is Catholic (90,7%); Orthodox (1.4%); Protestant and other (7.9%).

Geography: The north of Poland has a lot of plains, where the Wisla, Warhat and Oder rivers flow. There are also coniferous forests, and rye, potatoes and flax are grown. In the center of Poland there are plains and plateaus with arable land and great agricultural production: sugar beet and cereals. The southern region on the northern slopes of the Carpathians is less fertile. There are many mineral resources: coal in Silesia (fourth largest producer); sulfur in Tarnobrzeskie (second largest producer); copper, zinc and lead. The most important industries are of steel, chemicals and naval construction.


Population: 5,392,350 inhabitants
Land surface: 49,030 km2
Currency: Slovak Koruna
GDP per capita: US$ 15,871
Language: Slovak
Official name: Slovenska Republika.
Capital: Bratislava 460,000 inhabitants (1999)
Other cities (inhabitants – 2000): Kosice 244,400; Presov 95,300; Zilina 87,600; Nitra 87,400; Banská Bystrica 84,400. Government: parliamentary republic
Religion: Catholics 60.3%, not religious and atheist 9.7%, Slovak evangelical 6.2%, Protestants 3.5%, Greek Catholics 3.4%, Orthodox 0.7%, others 18%.

Geography. The Carpathian Mountains occupy a large part of Slovakia. The mountainous areas are covered by forests, which sustain an important logging industry. Agriculture is concentrated in the fertile plains of the Danube and Uh rivers (grasses, potatoes, sugar beet, fruit and vegetable products). The country has abundant resources of metals, copper, zinc, lead and mercury. There are also deposits of oil, coal and natural gas.


Population: 141,780,033 inhabitants
Land surface: 17,075,400 km2
Currency: Russian Ruble
GDP per capita: US$ 10.845
Language: Russian
Official name: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya.
Administrative division: the federation is composed of 26 autonomous republics.
Capital: Moscow (Moskva) 9,314,000 inhabitants (1999).
Other cities (inhabitants – 2000): Saint Petersburg 4,656,900; Nishni-Novgorod 1,351,800; Novosibirsk 1,397,800. Government: parliamentary republic
Religion: the majority is Orthodox Christian, while there are Islamic, Protestant and Jewish minorities.

Geography. Russia is divided into five great regions. It is the world’s largest country with 17 million km2. The European region, between the western border and the Ural Mountains (conventional boundary between Europe and Asia), is a vast plain crossed by the Volga, Don and Dnieper (Dnepr) rivers. This region is the richest region of the Russian Federation. The Ural Mountains, which extend from north to south, have important mineral deposits and abundant petroleum in its peripheral zones. Siberia, between the Ural Mountains and the Pacific coast, is rich in mineral resources; however, it is scarcely populated due to the harsh weather conditions. The Caucasus region is a vast steppe that extends north of its own mountains, between the Black and the Caspian seas. From Central Asia, a large depression comprising of deserts, steppes and mountains extends. In the plains, cereals, potatoes and sugar beets are grown; in Central Asia, cotton and fruits are grown; in the Caucasus and the Black Sea subtropical area, vineyards and citrus are grown. The country has vast mineral resources: oil, coal, iron, copper, zinc, lead, bauxite, manganese and tin in the Urals, Caucasus and Central Siberia.

  1. Answer by indicating to which country the statement refers to: Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, or Russia.

It is the fourth world producers of coal


The capital is Moscow


In Moravia there is coal


It is the most populated country


It has a logging industry


It is the largest country


The capital is Warsaw


It has the Bohemian Mountains


The capital is Bratislava


It is the largest country in the world


The capital is Prague


It has the highest GDP per capita


It produces a lot of sulfur


It has abundant petroleum resources



Population: 10,000,165 inhabitants
Land surface: 93,030 km2
Currency: Forint
GDP per capita: US$ 17,887
Language: Hungarian
Official name: Magyar Kösztarsasag (Republic of Hungary).
Capital: Budapest 1,836,000 inhabitants (1999).
Other cities (inhabitants – 2000): Debrecen 209,600; Miskolc 181,900; Szeged 170,600.
Government: János Áder, president since May 2012
Religion: Catholics 57.8%; Protestants 21.6%; no religion 18.5%; others 1.9%.

Geography. This country occupies a plain surrounded by a mountainous semi-circle – the Carpathians – with a maximum height of 1,000 meters. The mountainous zone is rich in minerals, magnesium, bauxite and coal. Between the Danube River and its affluent, the Tisza, a plain with very fertile land extends, making up the agricultural center of the country. The steppes located on the east of the Tisza are principally used for livestock.


Population: 21,344,129 inhabitants
Land surface: 238,390 km2
Currency: Romanian Leu
GDP per capita: US$ 9,060
Language: Romanian
Official name: România.
Capital: Bucarest (Bucaresti) 1,853,000 inhabitants (2003).
Other cities (inhabitants – 2000): Constanta 339,300; Iasi 353,600; Timisoara 338,900.
Government: Traian Basescu, president and head of state since December 2004
Religion: predominantly Orthodox Romanian (86.8%), with the following minorities: Catholic (5%), Greek Orthodox (3.5%) and Protestant.

Geography. The Carpathian Mountains extend from the north to the center of Romania. The Transylvanian plateau extends in the concavity of the arch formed by the Carpathians. In the east, the Moldavian plains extends while the Wallachia plains extend in the south, which are crossed by the Danube River that flows into the Black Sea through a large delta. It has abundant mineral resources: oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore and bauxite. Romania has begun to develop significant industrial activities; however its economy depends heavily on exports of raw materials and agricultural products. It is one of the leading oil producers in Europe.


Population: 7,583,684 inhabitants
Land surface: 110,910 km2
Currency: Leva
GDP per capita: US$ 9,032
Language: Bulgarian
Official name: Narodna Republika Balgaria.
Capital: Sofija 1,076,000 inhabitants (2003).
Other cities (inhabitants – 2000): Plovdiv 344,500; Varna 293,600; Burgas 192,900.
Government: Rosen Plevneliev, president of the Republic since January 2012
Religion: Christian Orthodox of the Church of Bulgaria 83%; Muslim 13%; Catholic 1.5%; Jewish 0.8% and Protestant, Gregorian Armenians.

Geography. Bulgaria is located in the Baltic Peninsula. It has four natural regions: in the north, the Danubian plains extend, which has fertile lands and is a production area of cereals (wheat and corn). To the south of those plains, there are the Balkans, a mountainous chain covered by forests, where cereals and potatoes are cultivated and sheep and cattle are bred. In this area, the country’s principal iron, zinc and copper deposits are located. To the south of the Balkans, a region full of plains is located, which is crossed by the Maritza River. Tobacco, cotton, rice, flowers and grapevines are cultivated in this region. The Rhodope mountain range extends throughout the south, which is a livestock region.


Population: 45,858,834 inhabitants
Land surface: 603,700 km2
Currency: Grivna
GDP per capita: US$ 6.848
Language: Ukrainian
Official name: Ukrayina.
Administrative division: 25 regions; the Republic of Crimea holds a special status as well as internal autonomy.
Capital: Kiev (Kijef) 2,660,401 inhabitants (2005).
Other cities (inhabitants – 2000): Jarkov (Charcov) 1,692,700; Donetsk (Doneck), 1,764,000; Dniepropetrovsk (Dnemopetrovsk) 1,483,300; Odessa 1,121,500.
Government: Oleksandr Turchynov, president since February 2014
Religion: Ukrainian Orthodox (Moscow Patriarchate and the Patriarchate of Kiev); Ukrainian Catholics; Protestants; Jews.

In 1991, 90% of Ukrainians ratified independence from the USSR, and in December of that same year it became member of the Community of Independent States. To its west and southwest, the country is bordered by Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania and Moldova, while to its north by Belarus and to the east and northeast by Russia. In the south, its coasts border the Black and the Azov (Acovsko More) seas. Its topography is flat, with some plains and plateaus. The Carpathian Mountains (maximum height 2061 meter) are located in the southwest, while the mountains of Crimea (maximum height 1545 meters) are located in the south. The climate is moderate, mostly continental. In the south, there are black soil steppes and semi-steppes, while mixed forests in the north (14% of the area).

   2. Indicate to which country the statement refers to: Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria or Ukraine:

It is crossed by the Tisza River


It is the most populated country


The capital is Sophia


14% of its land surface is made up of forests


The capital is Bucharest


It is the largest country


One of its regions is Transylvania


The capital is Kiev


The capital is Budapest


83% of the population is Orthodox


   3. Indicate the capital of the following countries:





Czech Republic












    4. Other countries of Easter Europe:

Country Population Extension, km2 Capital Currency Language
Belarus 9.635.397 207.600 Minsk Belarusian Ruble Belarusian
Moldova 3.759.599 33.843 Chisinau Moldovan Le Moldovan

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