Respiratory system

   1. Respiration

   Through respiration, the blood exchanges gases with the air. We distinguish two phases:

   - Inhalation: air with oxygen passes from the trachea into the lungs and then it goes to the blood: we absorb oxygen.

   - Exhalation: process of throwing out the lungs air with carbon dioxide (CO2).We expel carbon dioxide and we purify the blood.

   2. Answer if these sentences are true or false:

Inhalation is the process of expelling air

In the inhalation process, the air with oxygen passes

In the inhalation process, oxygen passes into the blood

The carbon dioxide purify

When we exhale, we expel the air

The air with more oxygen is expelled

   3. Parts of the respiratory system

   The respiratory system is made up of organs in charge of the respiratory function.

   As we observe in the upper picture, the parts of the respiratory system can be grouped into two sections:

   - The airways, with the nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx and trachea. This is divided into two bronchi that are in each lung.

   - The lungs. The bronchi branch into finer ducts or into bronchioles until reach the pulmonary alveoli. Under the lungs, there is a muscular membrane called diaphragm.

   4. Indicate if these organs are part of the airways or lungs:

Nasal cavities

Pulmonary alveoli

The pharynx

The bronchioles

The larynx

   5. Mechanism of respiration

   Through inhalation, the air enters through the mouth and nose and continues through the larynx. The epiglottis closes the passage of the esophagus (which connects with the stomach) and opens the passage to the trachea.

   The trachea is divided into two bronchi and the air goes to the lungs.

   In the lungs, the bronchi are subdivided into bronchioles. The air reaches to the cavities or pulmonary alveoli that are surrounded by capillaries (in the upper picture, they are in red and the others are in blue)

   When the air reach to the lungs, they swell, ribs expand and the diaphragm moves down.

   Oxygen enters in the capillaries and purifies the blood. At the same time, carbon dioxide (CO2) goes from the blood to the air.

   Through exhalation, the chest contracts and the air is expelled full of carbon dioxide. The blood remains oxygenated or purified and transports oxygen to each of the cells of the body.

   6. Answer if these sentences are true or false:

Air enters through the nose or mouth

The air goes to the esophagus

The bronchus is divided into two tracheas

Bronchioles comes from Bronchi

When the air arrives, the diaphragm moves up

Oxygen purifies the blood

    7. Hygiene of the respiratory system

   When the air crosses through the nasal cavities, it cleans heats up and wet, arriving in good condition to the lungs. So, we will have to take into account the following instructions:

   - We must inhale through the nose and exhale through the mouth.

   - We must always keep the nose clean.

   - We must ventilate rooms to prevent breathing a lot of air with carbon dioxide (see the side picture).

   - Do breathing exercises to develop lungs.

   - Do not sleep in rooms where there are plants because they expel carbon dioxide during night.

   - We should not talk while we eat in order to avoid choking.

   8. Answer if these advices are correct or incorrect:

Inhale through the nose

Keep windows closed

Keep the nose clean

Sleep with plants in the room

Talk while we eat

Exhale through the mouth

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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
Plaza Playa de Aro, 3, 1º DO 44002-TERUEL