11. The will and the habit
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  1. The voluntary act

   It is what is done with knowledge of the purpose, after reflecting. This event involve the intelligence to conceive the purpose and deliberate; and the will that decides and executes the action.

   The phases of the voluntary act are four:

   a) Conception of the purpose, that is, to understand and define what it is intended.

   b) Deliberation, that is, to reflect what we can and must do.

   c) Decision, which end the process of deliberation and one of the possibilities is chosen as purpose.

   d) Execution, which is to realize the determined purpose.

      The will is the faculty of rational beings to govern their actions. The act of the will is called "volition" and currently "want".

   The will can dominate reflexes, such as control the sneeze and not close the eyelids when the body approaches eyes. The will can dominate instinct and eat more of what you don´t like or not eat something appetizing.

   It influences memory and makes the effort to remember something. The will starts up the intelligence to study and do homework.

  A. Answer with one of these letters: a, b, c. (The correct answer will appear in red)

  1. The mind and will intervenes

    a. voluntary act
    b. reflex movement
    c. instinct


  2. To delimit what it is intended is

    a. deliberation
    b. conception of the purpose
    c. execution


 3. To make come true the purpose is

    a. decision
    b. deliberation
    c. execution


 4. To choose one of the possibilities is

    a. deliberation
    b. decision
    c. execution


 5. It can dominate the instinct

    a. will
    b. intelligence
    c. reflex movement


 6. It influences memory and intelligence

    a. instinct
    b. reflex
    c. will


  2. Freedom

   It is the faculty by which man decides his own way of acting, without external determinations. It is a property of the will, which is the absence of need. It is also called free will.

   Deterministic people deny freedom and say that everything that happens is necessary and there is no free actions. Their arguments are:

   a) Fatalism: everything that happens in the universe is inevitable and fatal. Review: the events do not obey the instinct but providence.

   b) Physical determinism: if man is a being of nature, he is completely subdue to the laws of nature, the laws of physics. Review: but man is a physical-spiritual compound.

   c) Physiological determinism: all man's actions are determined by their genetics and physiology. Review: the man can control himself and executes actions that do not take away freedom.

   d) Psychological determinism: they say we do not want things because we want to, but they have such strength of will, that force us to love them. Review: we act not always following the most attractive, forced by a higher motive.

  B. Answer with one of these letters: a, b, c.

  1. It is the absence of necessity

    a. will
    b. freedom
    c. decision


  2. It is also called free will

    a. freedom
    b. will
    c. execution


 3. They deny freedom

    a. psychologist
    b. historians
    c. deterministic people


 4. What happens in the universe is inevitable

    a. fatalism
    b. physical determinism
    c. physiological determinism


 5. Things compel us to love them

    a. fatalism
    b. psychological determinism
    c. physical determinism


 6. The actions are determined by genetics

    a. physical determinism
    b. psychological determinism
    c. physiological determinism


  3. The habit

   It is an ability or willingness to do what it has done repeatedly.

   a) Habits are present in men and animals. In the first one it is called practice and in the second one it is called training.

   b) Conditions. To form habits, they are needed: natural ability, memory and repetition. For example: we can not go over the head because we have not the natural ability to do so. Memory is required to do the same several times and finally it is needed the repetition.

   c) Acts are modifiable by repetition. The reflex acts are not modifiable. The instinctive actions of animals are little modifiable, but human instinctive actions are largely modifiable with the exercise of will. Spontaneous and voluntary acts are those who can fully modified by repetition, that is, those that can become habitual.

   d) Effects: the usual acts are more accurate, faster and requires less effort.

   It is desirable to firmly establish good habits, that is, to mold the native nature. This is the basis of education.

  C. Answer with one of these letters: a, b, c.

  1. Doing the same thing repeatedly is

    a. will
    b. instinct
    c. habit


  2. Training is given to

    a. animals
    b. man
    c. angels


 3. It is needed natural ability to acquire

    a. will
    b. habit
    c. instinct


 4. The acts are modifiable by

    a. repetition
    b. decision
    c. deliberation


 5. They are not modifiable

    a. habits
    b. instincts
    c. reflexes


 6. To form positive habits is the work of

    a. training
    b. education
    c. execution


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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
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