6. The memory
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 1. Fixation, conservation and recognition

   Memory is the ability to remember. It is accompanied by the power of knowing. It is important because if we forget what we know from one moment to the next, then learning would not be necessary.

   Six phases or aspects can be distinguished in relation to memory: fixation, maintenance, recognition, spontaneous evocation, voluntary evocation and temporalization.

   Fixation is necessary so that psychic facts and events are recorded or fixed in a person’s memory. Recording or fixation is not the same for all humans; it depends on physical, physiological and psychological conditions.

   The physical conditions include intensity, duration and repetition. A loud noise is recorded better than a weak noise; or events that last longer than shorter ones. Events are recorded even better if they are repeated. It is much better if a student repeats a lesson several times after understanding it, than if he or she just reads it once.

   Physiological conditions refer to the neural links, age and state of health.

   The psychic conditions are very important for learning. The teacher's explanation is best recorded when you pay attention and are interested in the lesson. When you are more concentrated and have fewer distractions, whatever you study will be better recorded.

   The preservation of memory depends on training brain cells or neurons.

   To recognize is to know again, that is, to realize that what we hear or see now we have heard or seen before. Recognition is easier than knowing, because things that we recognize are familiar.

  A. Answer by choosing one of these letters: a, b, c. (If the letter turns red, then the answer is correct)

  1. Memory is the ability to

    a. remember
    b. learn
    c. forget


  2. How many phases are there in relation to memory?

    a. Five
    b. six
    c. seven


 3. The ability to record psychic facts and events refers to

    a. preservation
    b. recognition
    c. fixation


 4. The conditions that influence can be physical, physiological and

    a. environmental
    b. psychological
    c. temporary


 5. The training of brain cells causes

    a. evocation
    b. recognition
    c. conservation


 6. When we recognize things, we feel they are

    a. familiar
    b. strange
    c. unknown


  2. Evocation and temporalization

   Evocation is the representation in memory of something perceived, experienced or known in the past.

   Psychic facts and events interlace each other according to the laws of association.

   When evocation is immediate without the intervention of the will, it is called spontaneous evocation. For example: remembering the place of birth; it is easy to remember about streets, trees, games, parents and siblings.

   Evocation is voluntary when the will is involved. We strive to remember to bring the past into the present. When a teacher asks a student about the lesson, the student has to make a voluntary effort to remember.

   In addition to remembering ideas and things, we also remember the time when the events occurred, in other words, we locate them within time. We must distinguish the “location”, by determining the place or space where something is. This is “temporalization”, the determination of the time at which something occurred.

   We rely on important memories to determine the temporalization, such as the date when we passed an important test, or had an illness or when we travelled.

  B. Answer by choosing one of these letters: a, b, c.

  1. The representation in the memory of something that was perceived in the past is

    a. temporalization
    b. evocation
    c. learning


  2. Psychic facts and events are interlaced according to the laws of

    a. association
    b. recognition
    c. conservation


 3. The evocation that is immediate without using the will is known as

    a. courageous
    b. tough
    c. spontaneous


 4. When we strive to remember something it is known as

    a. location
    b. spontaneous evocation
    c. voluntary evocation


 5. To determine the place or space of something is known as

    a. location
    b. temporalization
    c. recognition


 6. To remember the time when an event took place is known as

    a. location
    b. temporalization
    c. recognition


  3. Forgetfulness, mechanical and rational memory

   To forget is not to remember one or several things. Forgetfulness is normal in the life of people, because we cannot memorize everything that we perceive during the day or in a year.

   A good memory is not one that remembers everything, but keeps what is interesting and valuable, and forgets everything else.

   Amnesia is memory loss usually due to physiological causes, such as aging or an injury to the brain.

   Hypermnesia is the extraordinary memory of many things or events. It occurs when strong and dangerous emotions are lived by someone. For example: someone that is condemned to death often remembers his or her entire life very clearly. Hypermnesia also occurs when someone is suffering from a high fever or takes stimulating substances.

   We must distinguish between rational and mechanical memory. The mechanical memory memorizes words and phrases without understanding its contents. This is a bad practice to turn to when studying. We learn multiplication tables by heart, but even better after we understand the concept of multiplication.

   The rational memory understands texts well and remembers the main and supporting ideas that can be expressed in different words. This is the way to study in a useful and valuable way.

   Memorization is important for studying and learning. Therefore it is advisable to rationally use the laws of association of Aristotle, such as similarity, contrast, contiguity in space and time. Mnemonics is a set of methods to improve and develop memory that associates an easy thing with one that is difficult. For example, we can remember about Evaristo Petronio by associating him with two of our friends, Eva and Peter; we can remember the number 23.45 by associating it with counting: 2-3-4-5.

   Lessons can be recorded and retained even more when repetitions separate the main ideas from the secondary ideas of the lesson. You also learn better if you study for several days or weeks, instead of studying a lot in only one day. Those who study in a hurry, forget much faster.

  C. Answer by choosing one of these letters: a, b, c.

  1. In your personal life it is normal to

    a. remember everything
    b. have amnesia
    c. forget


  2. We should remember

    a. what is interesting and valuable
    b. all perceptions
    c. all events


 3. Memory loss is known as

    a. hypermnesia
    b. amnesia
    c. evocation


 4. The condition of having an extraordinary memory is known as

    a. amnesia
    b. evocation
    c. hypermnesia


 5. To learn words without understanding its meaning refers to

    a. rational memory
    b. mechanical memory
    c. hypermnesia


 6. To remember ideas of topics that were understood refers to

    a. rational memory
    b. mechanical memory
    c. amnesia


| Educational applications | Philosophy | In Spanish | Interactive |

®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
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