5. Association of images and ideas
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  1. Sensation, perception, image and idea

   We distinguish the sensation from the perception. By the sensation, we realize a quality such as color, taste, smell, etc. By the perception, we realize the full object such as a table, a pen, a computer, etc.

   We also distinguish the perception from the image and idea. Perception is the knowledge of an object which is absent. For example, I have the perception of the table and the pen that are in front of me, while I have the image of a car and a helicopter that I saw a few days ago.

   Perceptions and images with specific knowledge are acquired by the senses, but we also have abstract knowledge acquired with our understanding, thinking and reasoning. Abstract knowledge are called ideas or concepts.

  A. Choose one of these letters: a, b, c. (the correct answer will be in red)

  1. We realize a quality by the

    a. perception
    b. sensation
    c. image


  2. By perception, we realize

    a. an object
    b. a quality
    c. an idea


 3. The psychological residue that leaves an object is the

    a. image
    b. idea
    c. perception


 4. The knowledge of an object that is present is the

    a. sensation
    b. image
    c. perception


 5. Perceptions and images are

    a. abstract knowledge
    b. concrete knowledge
    c. ideal knowledge


 6. Abstract knowledge are called

    a. perceptions
    b. sensations
    c. ideas, concepts


  2. Laws of Association

   The images are associated each other involuntarily. One thing reminds us another thing and this to another one. For Example, we could say that the images are associated as cherries: when we catch one, the others are hooked.

   The phenomenon is called image association and has been studied for many years. The Greek philosopher Aristotle indicated four laws of association: similarity, contrast, contiguity in space and contiguity in time.

   - The similar images try to join. For example, a tall man reminds us other one and others basketball players.

   - The association by contrast is when images are very different. For example, "Laurel and Hardy" were famous. War reminds us peace and the excessive noise, the silence.

   - The association by contiguity in space is when one thing is together other thing. For example, we associate the house in the countryside with trees in the garden; the geographical contiguity between countries can cause wars between them.

   - The association by contiguity in time is when an image of an era transports us to another era. Example: Winter snow reminds us Christmas.

  B. Choose one of these letters: a, b, c.

  1. Involuntarily, pictures are

    a. associated
    b. separated
    c. not associated


  2. He studied the laws of association

    a. Socrates
    b. Andronicus of Rhodes
    c. Aristotle


 3. In the example of two tall men, there is a law of

    a. Contiguity
    b. similarity
    c. contrast


 4. Laurel and Hardy is an association of

    a. similarity
    b. contiguity
    c. contrast


 5. Two things are associated by contiguity

    a. in space
    b. in time
    c. by contrast


 6. The strength of the association depends on

    a. perception
    b. interest
    c. sensation


  3. Types of imagination and fantasy

   According to the sensations perceived by the senses, we have visual, auditory images, etc. Not all people have the same ease to keep images of all kinds. We distinguish three types of imagination: visual, auditory and motor.

   The visual type usually remember best the images, faces of people, films, etc.

   The auditory type retain the best musical tunes, songs, etc.

   The motor type remember well the movements such as walking, dancing, playing a musical instrument, etc.

   People with visual predominance are more frequently. It is because they learn and retains better what enters by the eyes than by the ear.

   We can distinguish the reproductive imagination from the creative imagination. The first one is the ability to recall and retain perceived images previously. The second one can combine images and ideas to obtain new ones originals. The creative imagination is also called fantasy.

   Children express their fantasy in games and pranks. Young people use fantasy in their dreams and plans for the future. Scientists need fantasy to imagine possible explanations and hypotheses of their experiments. The inventors devised new combinations of forces and equipment. Poets, painters and musicians also use the fantasy.

   Through fantasy, we guess the truth, imagine the good and create beauty. All human beings have imagination and fantasy, but animals do not. They always live glued to the earth and cannot get rid of it.

  C. Choose one of these letters: a, b, c.

  1. How many types of imagination are there?

    a. five
    b. four
    c. three


  2. Those who remember the faces of people are

    a. visual type
    b. auditory type
    c. motor type


 3. Those who remember swimming or dancing are

    a. visual type
    b. auditory type
    c. motor


 4. Recall and retain images is proper of

    a. reproductive imagination
    b. creative imagination
    c. motor imagination


 5. The creative imagination is called also

    a. delusion
    b. fantasy
    c. suggestion


 6. They have no imagination

    a. children
    b. animals
    c. inventors


| Educational applications | Philosophy | In Spanish | Interactive |

®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
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