4. The illusion
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  1. The illusion

   As we know, in the case of perception, there are sensations and images added by the person.

  But sometimes the perceived sensations can be misinterpreted and some images which do not correspond to the object can be added. In that case, there is an illusion.

  Illusion is misinterpreting the data of the senses.

  For example, at night, you hear a noise in the house and you think that it is a thief. Even you can imagine how he wears and the weapons that he has. However, the reality is different and the noise was produced by a cat that made noise when he jumped and bumped into an object. It was an illusion.

  The illusion is a psychological phenomenon in which there are real sensations that are misinterpreted or sensations which are added images that do not belong.

  The word illusion is also used to think of a nice future in which the best chances come true. From the real situation, the fantasy and best wishes are added.

   Inaccurate visual perceptions are called geometrical-optical illusions. In the picture, the line ab seems to be longer than the line a'b', although they are equal.

   For example, vertical stripes on a dress make a person looks thinner and taller, while horizontal stripes seem to broaden the figure. Another example, when we see the train tracks in the distance, it seems to be two converging lines that can join, but the reality is that they are parallel.

  A. Choose one of these letters: a, b, c (the correct answer will be in red)

  1. The adequate sensations and images produce the

    a. perception
    b. illusion
    c. hallucination


  2. If the sensation is misunderstood, the result will be the

    a. perception
    b. illusion
    c. hallucination


 3. If images are added to a real sensation

    a. hallucination
    b. illusion
    c. perception


 4. Inaccurate visual perceptions are called

    a. misperception
    b. presbyopia
    c. geometrical- optical illusion


 5. The thought of a nice future is

    a. illusion
    b. feasible fantasy
    c. realistic possibility


 6. When train tracks come together, it is a

    a. professional illusion
    b. distorted perception
    c. geometrical-optical illusion


  2. Hallucination

   While there is a real element in the illusion, in the hallucination everything is imaginary. It can be of two kinds:

   Physiological hallucination: when a man with high fever suffers a delirium in which unreal sounds are heard. The delirium is a state of mental disorder that causes excitement, disorder of ideas and hallucinations.

   Psychologival hallucinations: Through the hypnosis, a person can see things that are not there.

   For example: a hypnotized man who see that he is dancing with a person of the opposite sex and he really starts to dance. Or he sees that is fighting and he is in front of a thorium and begins to make passes and play with the cape.

  B. Choose one of these letters: a, b, c

  1. There is a real element in the

    a. hallucination
    b. illusion
    c. imagination


  2. There is nothing real in the  la

    a. hallucination
    b. illusion
    c. perception


 3. How many kinds of hallucination are there?

    a. four
    b. three
    c. two


 4. Delirium caused by the fever is

    a. psychological hallucination
    b. imaginative hallucination
    c. physiological hallucination


 5. There are psychological hallucination in the

    a. delirium
    b. hypnotism
    c. fever


 6. When a man believes that he is fighting, he has a

    a. psychological hallucination
    b. physiological hallucination
    c. delirium


  3. The suggestion

   The suggestion is influencing the way a man think or act and therefore, it cancels his will and forces him to act in a certain way. There is suggestion when some ideas and the will to do something are imposed to another person without noticing.

   Men who are superior in intelligence, prestige or skills influence others weaker and make them see and think as they want.

   For example, in the upper picture, an Italian researcher named Guido Guidi was trying to influence school children telling them that a box with fireplace was hot. Each kid got his finger through the hole and had to say when he noticed the heat. The box was really cold, but all the boys said that they felt the heat on the box.

   Generally, children are more suggestible than adults and among the latter, functional illiterates are more suggestible than those who are well-informed. With the education, the critical spirit and self-confidence are increased. A young man with a good personality does not believe easily commercials or the arguments of some politicians.

  C. Choose one of these letters: a, b, c

  1. The influence on the thinking is

    a. illusion
    b. hallucination
    c. suggestion


  2. The suggestion is imposed on other people

    a. without noticing
    b. being deceived
    c. being aware of the deception


 3. being aware of the deception

    a. the weak
    b. the most intelligent and skilled
    c. the less educated


 4. In the example, the kids felt the heat but

    a. the box was cold
    b. the box is hot
    c. there was fire inside


 5. They are more suggestible

    a. adults
    b. educated people
    c. children


 6. In the case of adults, they are more suggestible

    a. the more educated
    b. the less educated
    c. the best trained


| Educational applications | Philosophy | In Spanish | Interactive |

®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
Plaza Playa de Aro, 3, 1º DO 44002-TERUEL