13. Animals and humans

  1. Knowledge, instincts and intelligence

   Psychic phenomena are inferior if they are common to animals and humans, but are superior when they are exclusive to humans.

   Sensation and perception are inferior types of knowledge, but concept, judgment and reasoning are superior types. An animal sees and hears, that is, it has feelings and perceptions of concrete and material things that impress its senses.

   But humans have abstract ideas and concepts developed by intelligence; we make judgments, agree or disagree about concepts and use reason, make judgments and from some judgments we make others.

   Instinct solves specific, concrete and practical problems. Chimpanzees have developed instincts. One called Sultan was able to join a stick and a rod in order to reach a banana. This was a substantive and concrete action, but not intelligent.

   Human intelligence in addition to solving individual and concrete problems, has the ability to solve abstract, immaterial and spiritual (mathematics, moral, philosophy) issues. These problems are completely unknown to animals.

  A. Answer by choosing one of these letters: a, b, c. (If the letter turns red, then the answer is correct)

  1. What is common to animals and humans is

    a. inferior
    b. superior
    c. average

  2. These phenomena are exclusive to humans

    a. inferior
    b. superiores
    c. average

 3. Sensation and perception are phenomena that are

    a. average
    b. superiores
    c. inferior

 4. Judgments and reasoning are phenomena that are

    a. inferior
    b. average
    c. superiores

 5. Who joined a stick and a rod together?

    a. a chimpanzee
    b. a cat
    c. a horse

 6. It can solve abstract problems

    a. instinct
    b. intelligence
    c. perception






  2. Images and feelings

   An image is what remains after the arousal of the senses

   An animal has images and it can associate them. For example, a dog can associate a stick, with a hit and pain. So when the dog sees that someone lifts a stick up, it runs away to avoid the hit and pain.  

   Animals also have memory, which has three qualities: fixation, conservation and spontaneous recall. However, they do not have free evocation or timing. They cannot evoke memories or revive their past. Nor are they able to situate them in time, or determine whether it happened before or after the fact.

   Animals experience feelings as states of pleasure or pain. They are vital feelings: they are decayed or full of life, jump or play around. These feelings are inferior, material and bodily.

   But humans, in addition to these, have intellectual, aesthetic, moral and spiritual feelings. We can enjoy the beauty of a landscape, are glad to discover the truth, to help the needy or to receive a sacrament. Animals do not have these feelings.

  B. Answer by choosing one of these letters: a, b, c.

  1. This remains after the arousal of the senses

    a. feeling
    b. image
    c. reason

  2. The free evocation of the memory is found in

    a. humans
    b. animals
    c. both

 3. The preservation of memory is found in

    a. only humans
    b. only animals
    c. both

 4. The timing of the memory is found in

    a. humans
    b. animals
    c. both

 5. Aesthetic feelings are found in

    a. animals
    b. humans
    c. both

 6. Vital feelings are found in

    a. only animals
    b. only humans
    c. ambos


  3. Human Qualities

   a) Intangible Trends. Animals have material and instinctual trends, such as eating, sleeping, touching or rubbing. They cannot repress or dominate. Humans, in addition to these, are propelled towards immaterial and spiritual goods, such as science, art and morality. We can suppress and control instinctual drives. We can devote our lives to an ideal.

   b) Voluntary movements. Instinctive and habitual movements are exclusive in animals. But humans also have voluntary movements. We can direct our actions and movements using our will power.

   c) Sociability. Some animals organize themselves into societies. For example: bees form a hive and build honeycombs. But, they are always the same, and do not progress or regress. In contrast, human societies change, they transform, progress and regress.

   d) Language. Animals communicate by squeals and movements, but only humans can speak, read and write.

   e) Self-control. Animals follow their instincts, but humans are master of themselves. With our intelligence and will power, we can direct our actions and our lives. We also have self-consciousness, that is, we are aware of our existence and our intimacy.

  C. Answer by choosing one of these letters: a, b, c.

  1. Intangible trends are exclusive to

    a. animals and humans
    b. animals
    c. humans

  2. The tendency to eat is typical of

    a. animals and humans
    b. only animals
    c. only humans

 3. Will power is typical of

    a. animals
    b. humans
    c. both

 4. Animal societies

    a. change
    b. don’t change
    c. progress

 5. Reading and writing is typical of

    a. humans
    b. animals
    c. both

 6. Self-mastery is typical of

    a. animals
    b. animals and humans
    c. only humans




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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
Plaza Playa de Aro, 3, 1º DO 44002-TERUEL