13. Animals and humans
1. Knowledge, instincts and intelligence
Psychic phenomena are inferior if they are common to animals and humans, but are superior when they are exclusive to humans.
Sensation and perception are inferior types of knowledge, but concept, judgment and reasoning are superior types. An animal sees and hears, that is, it has feelings and perceptions of concrete and material things that impress its senses.
But humans have abstract ideas and concepts developed by intelligence; we make judgments, agree or disagree about concepts and use reason, make judgments and from some judgments we make others.
Instinct solves specific, concrete and practical problems. Chimpanzees have developed instincts. One called Sultan was able to join a stick and a rod in order to reach a banana. This was a substantive and concrete action, but not intelligent.
Human intelligence in addition to solving individual and concrete problems, has the ability to solve abstract, immaterial and spiritual (mathematics, moral, philosophy) issues. These problems are completely unknown to animals.