5. The transcendental

  1. Transcendental properties

   They are what every being has. There are five: essence, something, unit, goodness, truth. We can say that an entity or being is that thing, has some essence; that every being or entity is something; that every entity is one, good and true.

   a) Essence. Everything that is, has any essence, is that thing. For instance: what I have in my hand is a pen, that is its essence; what there is on the table is a pencil and its essence is to be a pencil.

   b) Something. Everything is something, different from another one. For instance: this pen is something different from that pencil. Every being is different from another.

   c) Unit. Every being is a unit. This pen is one pen and a pencil is one pencil. Unity can say without division. In the world there are lots of entities and they are distinct.

  A. Choose the right letter: a, b, c. (If the letter turns into red the answer is correct)

  1. Transcendental properties are

    a. four
    b. five
    c. six

  2. When we say that a being is such thing, we are talking about

    a. essence
    b. distinction
    c. unity

 3. This pen is a pen. It refers to

    a. essence
    b. distinction
    c. unity

 4. The pen is different from the pencil. So the pen is

    a. essential
    b. something
    c. unit

 5. Unity means

    a. essence
    b. something
    c. indivisibility

 6. As a being is such thing, it has

    a. essence
    b. something
    c. unity






  2. Goodness

   Every entity is good. Everything is valuable and men can rejoice in their own existence and in the existence of the rest of beings.

   Pessimists and desperate, who focus on pain and evil, can say that entity is wicked and it should not exist. In other words, the void is preferable to the being, not being is worth more than being.

   Other people affirm that though entity is good, not every entity is good, some are good and others are evil.

   San Agustin says that “evil is a defect, an imperfection of being. Every being, because of its existence, is good. When a being is not as perfect as it could be, when it has some imperfection, we say in that case it is evil. But in fact is good, in spite of not being entirely good”. So, wickedness is imperfection, scarcity or a defect of being.

   There is no metaphysical evil due to the fact that it would be absence, not being, the void. But the void does not exist, so there is no metaphysical evil.

   There are physical evils, i.e., lack of good, when something is not or does not work properly. For instance: illnesses are lack of health.

   There are moral evils too, because men abuse their own freedom, for example stealing o murdering. To remove these evils human freedom should be abolished, but that is the highest good of men.

  B. Choose the right letter: a, b, c.

  1. Things are valuable. It refers to

    a. goodness
    b. unity
    c. essence

  2. Who say entity is evil?:

    a. optimists
    b. pessimists
    c. realistic

 3. Who say that not being is worth more than being?

    a. optimists
    b. realistic
    c. pessimists

 4. Who say that evil is a defect?

    a. Saint Thomas
    b. San Agustin
    c. San Joseph

 5. Is there any metaphysical evil?

    a. no
    b. yes
    c. sometimes

 6. Illnesses are an example of what type of evil?

    a. metaphysical
    b. moral
    c. physical






  3. Truth

   Traditional metaphysics says that entity is true, is knowable (capable of being known), that human intelligence is capable of understanding things.

   If being could not be known and intelligence could not understand it, then there was not science. But we can verify that science exists and we have certain knowledge about things. So, entity is knowable and human intelligence can understand it. There are three types of true:

   a) Ontological or metaphysical truth is the accordance between entity and divine knowledge. For instance: if we say that something is really gold or really bread we want to say that they have the same qualities as gold or bread.

   b) Logical true is the accordance between human understanding and things. For example: if I think that two plus two equals four, this is true, because my understanding agree with reality; but if I think that two plus two equals five, this is false, because my understanding do not agree with reality. Error is the opposite to logical true.

   c) Moral true is the accordance between what it is said and what it is thought. If my words reproduce my thought there is moral true, i.e., I am sincere. Lie is the opposite to moral true.

  C. Choose the right letter: a, b, c.

  1. Entity is true if it is possible

    a. doubt
    b. suspect
    c. know

  2. If human intelligence cannot understand things, there was not

    a. science
    b. fantasy
    c. imagination

 3. What kind of true is the accordance between understanding and things?

    a. ontological
    b. logical
    c. moral

 4. What kind of true is the accordance between what it is said and what it is thought?

    a. ontological
    b. logical
    c. moral

 5. What kind of true is the accordance between entity and divine knowledge?

    a. ontological
    b. logical
    c. moral

 6. What kind of true is the opposite to lie?

    a. ontological
    b. logical
    c. moral

  4. Consequences

   It is necessary to be educated in true and canalize human intelligence towards the attainment of true.

   You have to avoid hesitation and skeptical doubt, in order to achieve certainty, trying to prove and reason our judgments. If our ideas are firm, so our behavior will be.

   Sincerity must be lived and you have to avoid hypocrisy, trick and lie.

   We need to search for good, for ourselves, other people and society.



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| Educational applications | Philosophy |
For young |In Spanish | To print |

®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
Plaza Playa de Aro, 3, 1º DO 44002-TERUEL