6. Truth and sophism
1. States of mind
It is important to distinguish between true and false knowledge. Regarding truth we can find four states or situations: ignorance, opinion, doubt and certainty.
a) Ignorance means to be unaware of the truth. There are a lot of things we do not know fully or partially. About them we cannot make a right judgment.
b) An opinion is a judgment or view about a questionable thing. We can have different opinions related to the same thing. Some think that it is going to rain, while others believe it is not. Opinion is the most likely judgment we consider, but without being firmly convinced.
c) Doubt is the indetermination of the spirit between two judgments or decisions. We hesitate about something we think it can be in one way or differently. We do not incline towards one side or another.
d) Certainty. It is the safe and clear knowledge about something. We think of a judgment to be true and reject all the others. Certainty is determination, conviction that things are as we see them.