4. Deduction and induction
Reasoning make us to move from some truths to others , to move from known judgements to unknown judgements.
Reasoning can be deductive and inductive. Deductive is the way that from a universal truth takes out a particular truth. Example all dogs are vertebrate then the dog I have is vertebrate.
The inductive reasoning is the opposite to deductive reasoning: from the particular truths rise to a universal. Example: the science affirms the heat expands or make bulkier the copper, silver, iron, water, gases etc. In short words the heat expands all the bodies. The inductive reasoning moves from particular truths to the universal truth.