1. Morality of human acts
Morality is a quality of human acts. Action is good if it is consistent with moral law and right reason. On the contrary, it is bad. You have take into account the object, the purpose and the circumstances.
The object is what we do; the purpose is the end use of that object. For instance, the building of a chalet is the object of my will; the purpose of that object is being able to live in there during holidays. Object and purpose are consistent with right reason, so they are good actions.
To study the seven circumstances we are going to give another example: a robbery. Both, object and purpose of this action are against right reason and moral law, so that action is bad.
The circumstances are: who, what, with what means, what for, how, when and where.
a) “Who” is the agent who does something. It is not the same if a child steals something as if an old man does it; a hungry is different from a wealthy man.
b) “What” is the quantity or quality of the act. It shows itself in how much or how little I steal. Or if I steal food, money, jewelry, etc.
c) “With what means” the robbery was made, i.e., with a gun, a ladder, etc.
d) “What for”, which was the purpose of the agent, their intention: if they stole to eat, to spend it in vices, etc.
e) “How”, the way it was made, with violence, by treason, etc.
f) “When”, by day or night.
g) “Where” or in what place: in a private house, in the street, in a church, etc.
If the object of the action (robbery) is against moral law, the action is bad. Circumstances can alleviate (soften) or aggravate (get worse) the wickedness of an action.