3. First World War
After the murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Austria government acussed Serbia of being responsible of the crime and declared it the war. Russia supported Serbia and Germany did the same with Austria. At first, only the Central empires (Germany and Austria) took part against the allies (Russia, Serbia, England, France and Belgium). Later, the Central empires were helped by Turkey and Bulgary, and the allies joined Japan, Portugal, Brasil and United States.
The war had three phases:
- WAR OF MOVEMENT. The Germans, making significant advances, arrived to Belgium and the North of France, but they were stopped by the marshal Joffre at the shore of Marne.
- TRENCH WARFARE. Due to hand-granades, poisonous gases and flame-throwers, soldiers of both sides stand in their positions, without remarkable offensives. In the battle of Verdun the Germans suffered a substantial defeat.
- NEW MOVEMENTS. German general Hindenburg wanted to defeat French and English and enter in Paris before the arrival of the Americans. But the French-English army, strenghted by the Americans, defeated the Germans in the second battle of Marne and forced them to an armistice the 11th November 1918. Military chiefs agreed to suspend the war until the Versailles Peace. (See: General Hindenburg reviewing the troops).
4. Write if the following events are related to: war of movement, trench warfare and new movements.
5. The Versailles Peace
First World War had caused the death to more than twenty millions of men and compleely ruined Europe. The Versailles Peace ended the war and deeply modify the political situation in Europe. Great Russian, German, Austrian and Turkish empires became republics, and their regions became new countries.
- GERMANY returned Alsace and Lorraine to France and Eupen and Malmedy to Belgium; it gave to Poland the “Polish corridor” and Posnania and the duchy of Schlewig to Denmark. It lost all its colonies and was punished to pay the looses of war to the Allies.
- AUSTRIA was reduced to a small state. Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Yugoslavia were born from its territories.
- TURKEY lost the regions of Mesopotamia (Iraq), Siria and Palestina.
- POLAND returned to be an independent country again, at the expense of Russia and Germany. It had access to the Baltic in the “Polish corridor” and Dantzig port was a free city.
-RUSSIA lose its territories of Finland, Estonia, Lathvia and Lithuania.
- ITALY recovered Trent, Carso and Istria.
- RUMANIA annexed the Hungarian Transylvania and Russian Bessarabia.
- GREECE get bigger at the expenses of Turkey.
The United States president, Wilson, gave the idea of the League of Nations, an international supreme court which main objective was to end with wars and peacefully solve politicla conflicts (see side figure).
6. Answer with the proper country: Germany, Austria, Turkey, Poland, Russia, Italy, Rumania or Greece.
®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain)
No 141, of 29-IX-1999
Plaza Playa de Aro, 3, 1º DO 44002-TERUEL