Baroque and the Golden Age
1. Culture and Baroque in Europe
- SCIENCES. Knowledge must be based on Reason and Experience, or, in other words, in the spirit of observation and in things which could be demonstrated using the senses.
+ Astronomy. There were four authors: Nicolaus Copernicus, who formulated the heliocentric theory by which the Sun is the center of the universe; Keppler, who studied the orbits of the planets around the Sun; Galileo, who perfected the telescope and Newton, who demonstrated the law of gravity.
+ Mathematics. Its main names are Descartes, with the Analitical geometry and Leibnitz and Newton with the Differential calculus.
+ Physics. Very important figures are Torricelli, with his barometer, and Boyle and Mariotte, with the pressure of gas.
+ Medicine. Michael Servetus demonstrated the minor blood circulation, and Harvey made the same with the high blood circulation.
+ + Philosophy. Bacon created the experimental method and Descartes established a new philosophical system (the cartesianism), based on the doubt method. (See Figure of Descartes).
+ France. Literature was developed by the French Academy. In theatre the main names were Cornielle, Racine and Moliere. Bossuet wrote the Discourse on universal history and Fenelon wrote the Telemachus.
+ England. William Shakespeare is the greatest theater author of all times, and wrote Romeo and Juliet, Othelo, Hamlet and others.
+ Italy. Where the most important figures are Juan Bautista Marini and Juan Bautista Vico.
+ France. Classicism triumphed, with an style where the straight line predominates. The best painters are Poussin and Claude Lorrain.
+ Italy. The greatest architect was Bernini with his work Saint Thereza Ecstasy, a beautiful sculpture. In painting two important figures are Dominichino and Caravaggio.
+ The Netherlands. Painting is distingished by the exuberance of forms, and the most important figure is Pieter Paul Reubens. Rembrant was the painter who better captured the chiaroscuro, as in his work The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp. Van Dyck was the most elegant painter of his time.
2. Answer if the following events and characters are refered to sciences, letters or arts: