Some historians place the year 1453 at the beginning of the modern age because on this year the city of Constantinople fell and put an end to the Byzantine Empire. Others set the start of modern age in 1492, due to two major events: the discovery of America and the conquest of the kingdom of Granada, which ended the Reconquista. Between the two dates the second is generally preferred: 1492.
A key feature of the Middle Ages is the formation of large nationalities. Kings heavily establish their authority and subject the nobles and the feudal hierarchy. The main countries of the period were:
- In FRANCE, kings Louis XI, Charles VIII and Louis XII were the ones that unified the French monarchy.
- In ENGLAND, King Henry VII Tudor was able to master the weakened feudal nobility, created the Privy Council to advise him and the Star Chamber to try those who would oppose the king.
- - In the GERMAN EMPIRE, Maximilian I created the Imperial House to judge disputes between nobles. He was an ally of Spain, and married his son Philip “the Handsome” with Juana “the Mad”. After his death the empire was passed on to his grandson Charles V, son of Philip and Juana.
- - In ITALY, there was not a strong feudal monarchy, but instead there was the division of the Duchy of Savoy in the North, the Lordship of Florence in the center and the Kingdom of Naples in the south, belonging to the kings of Aragon.
- In SPAIN, the monarchy of Ferdinand and Isabella was consolidated.
2. Indicate to which country these statements refer to: France, England, the German Empire or Italy.