Medieval Culture and Art

   1. The European Culture

   Due to the consequences of the barbarian invasions, there was a major setback in European culture; however, during the Middle Ages, the European economy, culture and art were revived. It is therefore false that the Middle Ages were a barbarian or uncultivated period.

   Medieval culture is attached to the Church, and intellectual labor, science and the arts were an exclusive monopoly of the monks. The culture developed during the first centuries of the Middle Ages in monasteries. From the XIII century on, the experimental method and the scientific spirit developed outside the monasteries. We can distinguish:

   - UNIVERSITIES. At first, education was provided in the schools of the cathedrals and monasteries. From the XIII century, the Universities were formed by a group of teachers and students. There were faculties of Liberal Arts, Law, Medicine, Philosophy and Theology. The most famous ones were the universities of Paris, Bologna and Montpellier.

   - PHILOSOPHY. The scholastic method was developed, through which after reading a philosophical text, the topic was discussed and a final conclusion was reached. St. Thomas Aquinas was well known and created Thomism. The Franciscans and Dominicans contributed the highest number of professors for the universities. Roger Bacon and Duns Scotus were also very well known.

   - LANGUAGE ARTS AND SCIENCES. Romance languages developed from the Latin language, such as French, Italian, Castilian Spanish, etc. Medicine was cultivated in the schools of Salerno and Montpellier. Mathematics was studied together with astronomy and cosmography.


   2. Answer if the statement refers to the universities, philosophy, the arts or science:
 

Formed by teachers and students

Romance languages emerged

The scholastic method was developed

Faculties of Law and Medicine

Medicine was studied in Montpellier

Famous were those of Paris and Bologna

Mathematics and astronomy

St. Thomas Aquinas was very well known



   3. The Spanish Culture

   - EDUCATION was provided in monasteries like the one in Ripoll (Catalonia) and cathedral schools, such as the ones in Palencia and Salamanca. The trivium (Rhetoric, Dialectic and Grammar) and quatrivium (Arithmetic, Geometry, Astronomy and Music) were studied.
   From the XIII century, general studies and the Universities of Palencia, Lerida and Salamanca were formed. The latter one was considered one of the four largest in Europe.

   - THE SCHOOL OF TRANSLATORS OF TOLEDO. It welcomed Christians, Jews and Arab scholars working in close collaboration, translating works of different languages. Alfonso X the Wise played a big role.

   - LANGUAGE ARTS. Among the Spanish literature, there were great pieces written: Cantares de gesta, Mío Cid and Méster de Clerecía. Gonzalo de Berceo was a very well known writer. In Catalan literature, Auxias March was well known. In history, we have the works of Alfonso X and the chronicles of the kingdoms.

   - SCIENCE. Astronomy, medicine and mathematics were studied. Especially known was the Majorcan Raimundo Lulio (philosopher), who wrote more than 500 works in Arabic, Catalan and Latin.
  Nautical and cartographic sciences were also studied in Spain.


    4. Indicate if the statement refers to education, the School of Translators of Toledo, language arts or science:

Christians, Jews and Arabs collaborated

There were Cathedral schools

The Cantares de gesta was written

Astronomy and Medicine were studied

There were in Palencia, Lerida and Salamanca

Translated works from other languages

Gonzalo de Berceo was very well known

Raimundo Lulio was very well known

The Mío Cid was written







     5. Art

   Medieval art is fundamentally religious. The architect builds cathedrals and the painter and sculptor take care of the decoration. We can distinguish between Arabic, pre-Romanesque, Romanesque, Gothic and Moorish art.

   - ARABIC ART. It has elements taken from the Persians and Byzantines empires. Its architecture uses the horseshoe arch and the dome. The Mosque of Cordoba is a highlight of the Caliphate period. A highlight of the Taifa art, is the Giralda of Seville, and of the Granada art, is the Alhambra of Granada. They also cultivated the industrial arts, such as work done with ivory.

   - PRE-ROMANESQUE ART. It goes from the VI century until the X century. They used elements from Roman art as well as from Byzantine and Asian. (Refer to the images).

   - ROMANESQUE ART. It goes from the XI century to the XII century. Its elements are:
   + The Latin cross, with unequal arms and with one or three longitudinal naves and another across.
   + The Dome barrel.
   + The Round-headed arches.
   + The Buttresses against the walls, which served to strengthen their resilience.
   Some highlights of the period include the cathedrals of Santiago of Compostela, Mainz and Pisa.

   - GOTHIC ART. It goes from the XII century to the XVI century. Gothic is the most beautiful expression in architecture. Some have called it "poems of stone". Its features are:
   + Ribbed domes, replacing the Romanesque half barrel.
   + Pointed arches, instead of the round-headed arches.
   + Flying buttresses to counteract the thrust of the walls, replacing the traditional buttresses.
   The most notable are the Gothic cathedrals of Paris, Reins, Burgos, Toledo and Leon.

   - MOORISH ART. Flourished in Spain between the XII and XV centuries. It was the work of the Moorish or Muslims, who kept their religion and customs living in Christian states.
   The Franciscan friary of La Rabida in the city of Huelva, the monastery of Guadalupe Geronimo in Caceres and the towers of Salvador, San Martin and San Pedro and Teruel are all Moorish.


   6. Answer if the statement refers to Arab art, pre-Romanesque, Romanesque, Gothic or Moorish:

The Mosque of Cordoba

They use the arch with half a point

It has elements of Roman art

They used the buttresses

The Giralda of Seville

The Alhambra of Granada

It has Asian and Byzantine elements

The Latin cross

The Cathedral of Santiago of Compostela

It is a Christianized Muslim art

It was called the poem of stone

It used pointed arches

The convent of La Rabida

It used the flying buttresses

The Cathedral of Paris

The Monastery of Guadalupe



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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
Plaza Playa de Aro, 3, 1º DO 44002-TERUEL