1. The reconquest before 1212
The reconquest is the set of struggles that the Hispanic people do to eject the Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula. It lasted almost eight centuries, from 711 to 1492. It is One of the most interesting and fruitful eras in the history of Spain.
We distinguish two periods: from 711 to 1212, with the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa and from 1212 to 1492, with the conquest of Granada.
- Kingdom of León: in 711 Muslims defeated the King Roderic. Thus the invasion began and it seemed its progress was unstoppable. But several Visigothic nobles were reorganized in Asturias (Galicia and Cantabria). Pelagius of Asturias, the son of a duke, conducted a small army that defeated the Muslim expedition in Covadonga. It was the first victory.
The Asturian capital was Oviedo and they conquered many territories until the river Douro.
Then moved the capital to Leon forming the kingdom of León.
- Castile: Several counties in Southern León conquered flat lands where they built castles to defend. Hence the name of Castile.
- Pyrenean kingdoms and COUNTIES: In the area of the Pyrenees, three cores of resistance emerged:
+ Navarre: with Sancho III the king who unified the Christian monarchs.
+ Aragon: the King Alfonso I the Battler conquered Zaragoza and Calatayud.
+ Catalonia: Several counties formed the Marca Hispanica dependent of Frank kings.
- Unification of CHRISTIAN kingdoms. The Christian kingdoms united and this allowed them to conquer vast territories. First Aragon and Catalonia forming the Crown of Aragon. Then Castile and León. King Alfonso VIII reunited a large army and in July 16, 1212 they defeated the Muslims at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, after a mass.
2. Indicate if these facts refer to the kingdom of Leon, to Castile, to the Pyrenean kings or to the unification: