- CONQUEST: In 711 A. C. Muslims invaded the Iberian Peninsula and defeated Roderic at the Battle of Guadalete. Muslim leaders, Tarik and Muza, conquered the peninsula, except a mountainous strip in the North where Christians reorganized and other area in the Pyrenees.
The rest of Spain was called Al- Andalus and was a dependent province of the Caliphate of Damascus.
- The Emirate of Cordoba: The Umayyad prince who got to escape from the Abbasids was Abdur Rahman I. He came running up Ceuta and then went to Spain proclaimed himself emir that is he became politically independent of the caliph. He reunited land and achieved to contain the Christian kings of the North.
- The Caliphate of Cordoba. Abdur Rahman III assumed the title of "chief of the believers” or caliph, that is, political and religious leader. Thus Al- Andalus achieved full independence. It is a time of major political, cultural and military splendor.
- ALMANZOR: In the tenth century, Almanzor, minister of the Caliph Hisham II stood up. He conducted continuous military expeditions through the Christian territory: Zamora was devastated and suffered looting. He also fought against Barcelona, León and took control of Santiago de Compostela. But he died after the battle of Calatañazor where it is said that "Almanzor lost the drum." The caliphate disappeared in 1031.