Population: 75,829,891 inhabitants
Land surface: 780,850 km2
Currency: Turkish Lira
GDP per capita: US$ 8,407
Official name: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti.
Capital: Ankara 3,582,000 inhabitants (2003).
Other cities (inhabitants – 2000): Istanbul 9,500,000; Izmir 2,272,500; Bursa 1,164,400; Adana 1,137,100; Gaziantep 778,200.
Religion: predominantly Muslim (80% Sunnis and 20% Shia, of which 14% are Alevis, Shia not orthodox); Christians (0,2%).
Geography. Turkey has part of its territory in Europe and other parts in Asia: the peninsula of Anatolia and Turkish Armenia are separated by the Dardanelles Strait, the Marmara Sea and the Bosphorus Strait, hence forming a sort of "bridge" between Asia and Europe. Eastern Thrace, located on the southeastern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, occupies an area of less than 1/30 of the total land area. It comprises an arid steppe plateau, the Istranca Mountains and a region full of hills suitable for farming. Anatolia is a mountainous region with many lakes and swamps. The Pontic mountain chain runs throughout, and the Taurus Mountains run throughout the south, which delimit the Anatolian plateau. The latter one extends all the way to the east, thus forming the Armenian plateau. The massif of Armenia occupies the east end of the country, whose center is located in the lake region of Van where they have recorded large volcanic activity and sometimes earthquakes. The country is essentially based on its agriculture; however, the scarcity of natural resources has created difficulties for industrialization to develop.
Population: 7,044,501 inhabitants
Land surface: 22,070 km2
Currency: Israeli new shekel
GDP per capita: US$ 25.864
Language: Hebrew and Arabic
Official name: Medinat Yisra'el (Hebrew); Isra'il (Arabic)
Capital: Jerusalem was proclaimed the only and indivisible capital of Israel in 1980 (686,000 inhabitants in 2003). The United Nations condemned this action. Many diplomatic missions are in Tel Aviv - Yafo 360,400 inhabitants.
Other cities (inhabitants – 2000): Haifa 945,200; Holon 163,800.
Religion: Judaism, official. Arabs are Muslim (Sunnis) or Christian; Druzeism.
Geography. According to the pre-1967 borders, Israel was 20,770 km2. It is located in the Near East. It has coasts on the eastern Mediterranean Sea on its west side, while on its south side it has another small exit unto the Gulf of Aqaba on the Red Sea. Military and Jewish settlements occupy a strip of the Golan Heights (Syria), 1150 km2, the West Bank, 5879 km2, and the Greater Jerusalem, 70 km2. It has four natural regions: the coastal plains, which has a Mediterranean climate and is the agricultural center of the country; the region of the central hills and mountains stretching from Galilee to Judea; the depression of the west, which is bordered on the north by the Jordan River and flows into the Dead Sea; and the Negev Desert in the south that takes up half of the territory. The main agricultural products are: citrus fruits, grapes, vegetables, cotton, sugar beet, potatoes and wheat. Livestock of cattle, sheep and goats is very important to the country. Its industry is experiencing a rapid expansion. With serious water problems, the country has 2,000 km2 of irrigated land. The recovery of the Negev was achieved through artificial irrigation.
Population: 25,292,816 inhabitants
Land surface: 2,149,690 km2
GDP per capita: US$ 15,711
Official name: Al-Mamlaka al-Arabiya as-Saudiya.
Capital: Riyadh (Royal headquarters) 4.7 millions inhabitants (2000).
Other cities: Jiddah (Administrative headquarters) 2,604,500 inhabitants; Makkah (The Mecca, religious headquarters) 1,229,200 (2000)
Government: absolute monarchy
Religion: Islam (official). Sunni Muslim 95%; Shia Muslim 3%, Christians, 1%.
Geography. This country occupies 80% of the Arabian Peninsula. It has two major deserts: in the north, the An Nafud; and in the south, the Ar Rub al Khali. Between them lie volcanic massifs and plains that represent the only fertile region of the entire country, where wheat and dates are grown due to the rare winter rains. With less than 0.3% of its land being cultivated, the country imports 90% of the agricultural products it consumes. Oil exploitation, which is concentrated on the coasts of the Persian Gulf, is the basis of the country’s enormous wealth.
1. Indicate which country the statement refers to: Turkey, Israel or Saudi Arabia