South Asia

Turkey

Hymn


Population: 75,829,891 inhabitants
Land surface: 780,850 km2
Currency: Turkish Lira
GDP per capita: US$ 8,407
Language: Turkish
Official name: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti.
Capital: Ankara 3,582,000 inhabitants (2003).
Other cities (inhabitants – 2000): Istanbul 9,500,000; Izmir 2,272,500; Bursa 1,164,400; Adana 1,137,100; Gaziantep 778,200.
Government: presidential
Religion: predominantly Muslim (80% Sunnis and 20% Shia, of which 14% are Alevis, Shia not orthodox); Christians (0,2%).

Geography. Turkey has part of its territory in Europe and other parts in Asia: the peninsula of Anatolia and Turkish Armenia are separated by the Dardanelles Strait, the Marmara Sea and the Bosphorus Strait, hence forming a sort of "bridge" between Asia and Europe. Eastern Thrace, located on the southeastern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, occupies an area of less than 1/30 of the total land area. It comprises an arid steppe plateau, the Istranca Mountains and a region full of hills suitable for farming. Anatolia is a mountainous region with many lakes and swamps. The Pontic mountain chain runs throughout, and the Taurus Mountains run throughout the south, which delimit the Anatolian plateau. The latter one extends all the way to the east, thus forming the Armenian plateau. The massif of Armenia occupies the east end of the country, whose center is located in the lake region of Van where they have recorded large volcanic activity and sometimes earthquakes. The country is essentially based on its agriculture; however, the scarcity of natural resources has created difficulties for industrialization to develop.


Israel

Hymn

Population: 7,044,501 inhabitants
Land surface: 22,070 km2
Currency: Israeli new shekel
GDP per capita: US$ 25.864
Language: Hebrew and Arabic
Official name: Medinat Yisra'el (Hebrew); Isra'il (Arabic)
Capital: Jerusalem was proclaimed the only and indivisible capital of Israel in 1980 (686,000 inhabitants in 2003). The United Nations condemned this action. Many diplomatic missions are in Tel Aviv - Yafo 360,400 inhabitants.
Other cities (inhabitants – 2000): Haifa 945,200; Holon 163,800.
Government: presidential
Religion: Judaism, official. Arabs are Muslim (Sunnis) or Christian; Druzeism.

  Geography. According to the pre-1967 borders, Israel was 20,770 km2. It is located in the Near East. It has coasts on the eastern Mediterranean Sea on its west side, while on its south side it has another small exit unto the Gulf of Aqaba on the Red Sea. Military and Jewish settlements occupy a strip of the Golan Heights (Syria), 1150 km2, the West Bank, 5879 km2, and the Greater Jerusalem, 70 km2. It has four natural regions: the coastal plains, which has a Mediterranean climate and is the agricultural center of the country; the region of the central hills and mountains stretching from Galilee to Judea; the depression of the west, which is bordered on the north by the Jordan River and flows into the Dead Sea; and the Negev Desert in the south that takes up half of the territory. The main agricultural products are: citrus fruits, grapes, vegetables, cotton, sugar beet, potatoes and wheat. Livestock of cattle, sheep and goats is very important to the country. Its industry is experiencing a rapid expansion. With serious water problems, the country has 2,000 km2 of irrigated land. The recovery of the Negev was achieved through artificial irrigation.


Saudi Arabia

Hymn

Population: 25,292,816 inhabitants Land surface: 2,149,690 km2 Currency: Riyadh
GDP per capita: US$ 15,711
Language: Arabic
Official name: Al-Mamlaka al-Arabiya as-Saudiya.
Capital: Riyadh (Royal headquarters) 4.7 millions inhabitants (2000).
Other cities: Jiddah (Administrative headquarters) 2,604,500 inhabitants; Makkah (The Mecca, religious headquarters) 1,229,200 (2000)
Government: absolute monarchy
Religion: Islam (official). Sunni Muslim 95%; Shia Muslim 3%, Christians, 1%.

   Geography. This country occupies 80% of the Arabian Peninsula. It has two major deserts: in the north, the An Nafud; and in the south, the Ar Rub al Khali. Between them lie volcanic massifs and plains that represent the only fertile region of the entire country, where wheat and dates are grown due to the rare winter rains. With less than 0.3% of its land being cultivated, the country imports 90% of the agricultural products it consumes. Oil exploitation, which is concentrated on the coasts of the Persian Gulf, is the basis of the country’s enormous wealth.


   1. Indicate which country the statement refers to: Turkey, Israel or Saudi Arabia

The capital is Ankara

It has big oil exploitation

It has colonial settlements

The largest country

It is the most populous

It exports citrus

It has the highest GDP

0.3% of its land is cultivated

The capital is Jerusalem

It is a bridge between Asia and Europe

The capital is Riyadh






United Arab Emirates

Hymn

Population: 4,502,582 inhabitants
Land surface: 83,600 km2
Currency: United Arab Emirates Dirham
GDP per capita: US$ 25,514
Language: Arabic
Official name: Daulat al-Imarat al-Arabiyah al-Muttahidah.
Capital: Abu Dhabi (Abu Zaby) 475,000 inhabitants (2003).
Other cities (inhabitants – 2000): Dubai 1,401,100; Ash-Shariqah 402,000; Al-'Ayn 283,800; Ajman 143,700.
Government: parliamentary republic
Religion: Islam 94.9% (Sunnis 80%, Shia 14.9 %); Christian 4%; others 1%.

  Geography. This country is located in the southeast corner of the Arabian Peninsula. It extends from the peninsula of Qatar until the Strait of Hormuz. The territory mainly composed by deserts with a few oases and wadis (dry and rocky beds of rivers). The coastline is low with a highly irregular contour, as well as with coral islands and sandbanks. Most of the oil fields being exploited are located in this area. The country is one of the major global oil producers.


Syria

Hymn

Population: 20,446,734 inhabitants
Land surface: 185,180 km2
Currency: Syrian Pound
GDP per capita: US$ 3,808
Language: Arabic
Official name: Al-Jumhouriya al-Arabiya as Suriya.
Capital: Damasco (Dimashq) 2,270,000 inhabitants (1999).
Other cities (inhabitants – 2000): Aleppo (Halab) 2,319,800; Homs 698,800; Latakia 391,300; Hamah 350,900.
Government: presidential
Religion: most of the population is Muslim.

   Geography. The country borders Turkey and Israel. The mountains of Lebanon are situated to its west along the coast, while the semi-desert plains are located to the south. The plateaus of the lower basin of the Euphrates River (Al-Furat) are located in the north. The country’s agriculture is concentrated in the plains of the west, receives sufficient amounts of rainfall, and consists of cereals, grapes and fruits. The volcanic plateaus of Jabal al Druze, located in the south, have high fertility and are also cultivated just as the surrounding desert oases are, such as the Damascus. Cotton cropping and sheep farming for wool are destined for exportation purposes. Oil extraction is the major industry.


Iraq

Hymn

Population: 29,492,184 inhabitants
Land surface: 438,320 km2
Currency: Iraqi Dinar
GDP per capita: US$ 2,230
Language: Arabic
Official name: Al-Jumhouriya al-Iraqiya.
Capital: Baghdad 5,620,000 inhabitants (2003).
Other cities (inhabitants – 2000): Mosul 1,099,700; Al-Basrah 1,004,800; Irbil 692,100; Kirkuk 688,500 (2000).
Government: presidential
Religion: predominantly Islamic

Geography. The center of Iraq is located in the Mesopotamian area between the Tigris and Euphrates (Al-Furat) rivers. It is suitable for agriculture and the population is mainly concentrated there. In the mountainous zone of the north, Kurdistan, there are large deposits of oil. The fifteen million palm trees that make up 80% of global exports of dates are located in the Lower Mesopotamia area on the Shatt-al-Arab river right at the convergence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.


   2. Indicate which country the statement refers to: the Arab States, Syria or Iraq Emirates

The largest country

It grows cotton

It has 15 million palms

The capital is Abu Dhabi

It is the most populous

It extracts sheep’s wool

It is a major oil producer

The capital is Damascus

It has the highest GDP

The capital is Baghdad

It exports dates


    3. Other countries in South Asia

Country Population Extension, km2 Capital Currency Language
Azerbaijan 8.533.620 86.600 Baku Azerbaijani Manat Azerbaijani
Bahrain 766.071 710 Manama Bahraini Dinar Arabic
Cyprus 863.624 9.250 Nicosia Euro Greek and Turkish
Turkmenistán 5.030.872 488.100 Ashjabad Manat Turkmeno
Georgia 4.360.801 69.700 Tbilisi Georgian Lari Georgian
Jordan 6.1178923 92.300 Amman Jordanian Dinar Arabic
Kuwait 2.919.143 17.820 Kuwait City Kuwaiti Dinar Arabic
Lebanon 4.142.299 10.400 Beirut Lebanese Pound Arabic
Oman 2.650.820 309.500 Muscat Omani Rial Arabic
Qatar 855.896 11.000 Doha Qatari Riyal Arabic
Yemen 22.066.020 527.970 Sana'a Yemeni Rial Arabic

   4. Indicate the capital of the following countries:

Saudi Arabia

Iraq

Israel

Syria

Turkey

United Arab Emirates



 
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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
Plaza Playa de Aro, 3, 1º DO 44002-TERUEL