Northern Europe

From the information of each country, you should principally focus on the geography, the capital, the population, the extension and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita (the GDP is the value of the total production of goods and services of a given country within a national territory, divided by the average population. Per capita = per head, per habitant. Data of the World Development Indicators, World Bank)

The United Kingdom


Population: 61,018,648 inhabitants
Land surface: 244,820 Km2
Currency: British Pound
GDP per capita (per inhabitant): US$ 33,238
Language: English
Official name: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Capital: London 7,429,000 inhabitants (2001).
Other cities (inhabitants): Birmingham 992,000; Leeds 720,000; Glasgow 578,000; Sheffield 516,000; Edinburgh 454,000; Liverpool 445,000; Manchester 437,000 (2001). Government: Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy, Elizabeth II, Queen and Head of State since February 1952.
Dependencies: Gibraltar; Falklands; Pitcairn; Saint Helena; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent; Solomon Islands; Turks and Caicos; Virgin Islands (UK) Religion: Christian 71.6%; no religion/not specified 23.2%; Islamic 2.7%, Hindu 1.0%; Sikh 0.6%; Jewish 0.5%; Buddhist 0.3%.

   Geography. This country is made up of Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) and Northern Ireland, plus some smaller islands. The center of Britain is occupied by the Pennines Mountains, which are of low height. The Grampian Mountains rise in Scotland, while the Cambrian Mountains rise in Wales. The great plains are in the southeast around London. The weather is mild. Agriculture, which is a subsidiary activity, is highly mechanic. Services – especially insurance, finance, and tourism – are big currency generators. The vast carbon and iron reserves, which built the foundation of the Industrial Revolution, are almost completely exhausted, while the gas and petroleum deposits in the North Sea – which made the United Kingdom a principal exporter of those products starting from the 1970s – are rapidly decreasing.



Population: 4,380,073 inhabitants
Land surface: 70,270 Km2
Currency: Euro
GDP per capita: US$ 38,505
Language: Irish and English
Official name: Poblacht na h’Éireann.
Capital: Dublin 1,122,800 inhabitants (including city and county) (2002).
Other cities (inhabitants): Cork 123,100; Limerick 54,000; Galway 65,800; Waterford 44,600 (2002)
Religion (2002): Catholics 88.4%; Church of Ireland 2.9%; Presbyterians 0.5%.

Geography. The northern part of Ireland is part of the United Kingdom. The Irish Republic occupies the rest of the island. The southern part of the country has massif mountain ranges, which do not surpass the thousand meters. The central plain extends from east to west and has many lakes and rivers. With a humid oceanic climate and an infertile soil, pastures apt for livestock cover a big part of the country. Agriculture mainly develops on the eastern slopes and valleys of the Shannon River. The principal agricultural products are wheat, barley, potatoes, beets and hay. The industry of transforming livestock products is the most important one.



Population: 4,727,260 inhabitants
Land surface: 323,802 km2
Currency: Norwegian Krone
GDP per capita: US$ 41,420
Language: Norwegian
Official name: Kongeriket Norge.
Capital: Oslo 795,000 inhabitants (2003).
Other cities: Bergen 200,200 inhabitants; Trondheim 140,700; Stavanger 109,900 (2000).
Government: Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy
Religion: Church of Norway (Lutheran) 88%; There are Muslim, Catholic and Evangelist minorities.

Geography. The Scandinavian mountains run throughout the Norwegian territory from north to south along the coast. On the western slope glacial erosion dug the valleys deeply below the current sea level, giving rise to the 'fjords' coast, narrow and deep sea branches framed by steep slopes. Under the influence of the oceanic drift from the north of the Gulf Stream, there are humid and pleasant winters, and cold summers, while the vast areas of the high lands have peatlands and tundra. The north is traversed by small groups of nomadic reindeer breeders, Sami. The population is concentrated in the south, especially in the region of Oslo. Nine tenths of the territory is uninhabited.


   1. Answer to which country the statement refers to: United Kingdom, Ireland or Norway.

The capital is Dublin

It has the Pennines Mountains

It is the largest country

The capital is London

The GDP per capital is the highest

Wheat and barley are cultivated

The most inhabited country

There are the Scandinavian mountains

There are big carbon reserves

The capital is Oslo



Population: 5,453,204 inhabitants
Land surface: 43,090 km2
Currency: Danish Krone
GDP per capita: US$ 33,973
Language: Danish
Dependency: Greenland
Religion: 87.7% of the population belongs to the Lutheran Protestant Church; 60,000 Catholics; 50,000 Muslims; 8,000 Jews
Capital: Copenhague 1,066,000 inhabitants (2003)
Other cities (inhabitants - 2000): Århus 645,300; Odense 145,200; Ålborg 119,800; Frederiksberg 91,200.
Government: parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Queen Margaret II, sovereign since January 1972.

Geography: Denmark is one of the flattest countries in Europe with an average height of 35 meters. The territory is divided into a continental part - the Jutland Peninsula - and an island part (including the islands of Sjaeland and Jelling), which represents one third of the total area. Summers in the continental part are relatively hot and rainy. The land is intensively cultivated despite the cold winters. It is a supplier of animal products and has intense maritime activity.



Population: 9,159,978 inhabitants

Land surface: 449,964 km2

Currency: Swedish Krone

GDP per capita: US$ 32,525

Language: Swedish

Official name: Konungariket Sverige. Administrative division: 24 provinces.

Capital: Stockholm, 62,824 inhabitants (2004).

Other cities (inhabitants – 2000): Göteborg 744,300; Malmö 242,700; Uppsala 125,400.

Government: hereditary constitutional monarchy

Religion: Lutheran (89% of the population); Catholic minorities (1.8%), Pentecostal (1.1%) and others (8.1%).

Geography: It shares the Scandinavian Peninsula with Norway. The north is an area covered with forests, area where iron is exploited and paper factories are located. The central region, with plateaus and fertile lowlands, is the main industrial zone of the country (metallurgical). The South is an agricultural region: wheat, potatoes, sugar beet and cattle are the main activities. It is the most densely populated area of the country. The coastal areas of the North and Baltic seas suffer high levels of pollution.




Population: 5,292,617 inhabitants Land surface: 338,150 km2 Currency: Euro
GDP per capita: US$ 31,070 $
Language: Finnish
Official name: Suomen Tasavalta.
Capital: Helsinki 1,075,000 inhabitants (2003).
Other cities (inhabitants – 2000): Espoo 219,400; Tampere 197,200; Turku 175,100.
Government: Tarja Halonen, President since 2000 (Re-elected in January 2006). Religion: official churches: Evangelical Lutheran Church (more than 94% of the population), Orthodox Church of Finland (2%). Geography: It is a country with a lot of lakes of little depth. The territory is very flat with an average height of 150 meters. The population is concentrated in the coast, which is the main agricultural area of the country. The base of the economy is forestry (coniferous forests) and mobile telephony. The main export products are in the electrical industry (high-tech electronics and communications, mobile phones), metal, wood (pulp and paper) and chemicals.

   2. Indicate to which country the statement refers to: Denmark, Sweden or Finland

The most populated country

The capital is Copenhagen

It has coniferous forests

The seas are polluted

The capital is Helsinki

It is the largest country

It has an intense maritime activity

The capital is Stockholm

It makes up the Jutland Peninsula

It fabricates mobile phones

The GDP is the highest







Population: 1,330,510 inhabitants
Land surface: 45,226 km2
Currency: Estonian Krone
GDP per capita: US$ 15,478
Language: Estonian
Official name: Eesti Vabariik. Administrative division: 15 counties.
Capital: Tallinn 391,000 inhabitants (2003).
Other cities (inhabitants – 2000): Tartu 98,400; Narva 72,100; Kohtla-Jarve 45,200; Pärnu 42,800.
Government: parliamentary republic
Religion: Lutheran (majority), Orthodox, Baptist.
Geography: Estonia is located to the north of the Baltic Sea and borders Russia and Latvia. The Estonian landscape is of glacial origin, has numerous rivers and more tan 1,500 lakes, such as Peipsi (the fourth longest in Europe) and the Vorts. The forests make up 38% of the territory; the highest peak is the Suur Muna Mago Mountain (317 meters above sea level). The climate is mild, with average temperatures of 28 degrees Celsius during the summer and around -5 degrees Celsius during the winter. The coasts above the Baltic Sea have an extension of 1,240 km and various fjords. Approximately the tenth part of the territory is made up of 1,500 islands near the coast. The Gulf of Finland has numerous bays without ice, of which Tallinn is the greatest. The main subsoil resources are oil shale (which supply most of the energy needs of Estonia) and phosphates. Meat, vegetables, potatoes, and cereals are obtained from farming.







Population: 2,265,485 inhabitants
Land surface: 64,590 km2
Currency: Euro
GDP per capita: US$ 13,646
Language: Latvian
Official name: Latvijas Republika.
Capital: Riga 733,000 inhabitants (2003).
Other cities (inhabitants – 1995): Daugavpils, 120,152; Liepaja, 100,271; Jelgava, 71,129; Jurmala, 59,247.
Government: parliamentary republic
Religion: most are Protestant, Evangelical Lutheran Church, followed by Catholics.
Geography: It is a very flat country, with its highest mountain being 310 meters high. It has numerous forests, lakes, and rivers that flow into the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Riga in the northeast of the country. Latvia has a coast of 494 km on the sea. The Zemgale plain, in the south bordering Lithuania, has the most fertile lands, reason why it is considered the country’s granary. The Highlands, covering 40% of the country, extend west and north all throughout Estonia. The weather is wet and cold and summers are rainy and short, with an average temperature of 17 degrees Celsius. Winter lasts from December to March, with extreme temperatures ranging from below zero to 40 degrees Celsius. Two-thirds of the arable land is used to produce cereals and the rest is used for pasture. The main industries are metallurgical engineering (ships, automobiles, rail cars and farm equipment), followed by motorcycles, appliances and scientific instruments.







Population: 3,371,128 inhabitants
Land surface: 65,200 km2
Currency: Lithuanian Litas
GDP per capita: US$ 14,494
Language: Lithuanian
Official name: Lietuvos Respublika.
Capital: Vilnius 549,000 inhabitants (2003).
Other cities (inhabitants – 2000): Kaunas 411,600; Klaipéda 202,400; Siauliai 146,300; Panevezys 133,600.
Government: parliamentary republic
Religion: the majority is Christian-Catholic (80%); there are also Russian Orthodox; as well as different minorities such as Protestants, Muslims, Jews and no religion.

Geography: It has rounded mountains and flat valleys as a consequence of the movement of glaciers. It is the greatest of the mini Baltic States. It has more tan 700 rivers and streams, which feed numerous forests and about 3,000 lakes. The Nemunas River, which cuts through the country from east to west, is an important route for transportation. With 49% of arable land, Lithuania has a very important agricultural sector (grains, potatoes, and vegetables). Livestock of cattle and swine is carried out. Its industries include food, construction machinery and energy exports. About 70% of the energy comes from a nuclear plant of the same type of the one in Chernobyl, Ukraine. Since the 1980s, pollution increased, especially bacterial, of rivers and lakes, which led to an increase in infectious diseases during the first years of life.

   3. Indicate to which country the statement refers to: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania

It builds boats and cars

It is the most inhabited country

The capital is Tallinn

70% of its energy is nuclear

The capital is Riga

It is the largest country

It has phosphate resources

The capital is Vilnius

It has more than 1,500 lakes

80% of its population is Catholic

   4. Indicate the capitals of the following countries:





United Kingdom




    5. 5. Another country of northern Europe
Country Population Extensión, km2 Capital Currency Currency
Iceland 303.495 103.000 Reyjavik Icelandic Krona icelandic

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