Industry



   1. Industry
      The industry is the economic activity that transforms raw materials (iron, copper, coal, wool, etc.) into new products useful to man, such as cars, televisions, computers, food, etc. We can distinguish three types of industries:

   - The heavy industry: it produces basic products for the development of other industrial activities. This group includes the iron and steel industry that produces large sheets of iron to make cars and trains; petrochemistry produces chemicals products such as lacquers, varnishes, fibers, etc.; and the production of cement to build houses.

   - The artisanal handicraft produced in the home or small workshops. In ceramic handicraft, vases are made and decorated (see picture).

   - The big industry where all kinds of products such as cars, boats, trains or planes are manufactured. For installation of the factories is necessary:
   + Raw materials (iron, copper, aluminum, etc.)
   + Sources of energy (oil, electricity, natural gas, coal)
   + Specialized workforce (engineers, technicians, specialized workers).
   + Media (roads, railways, ports, etc.).

   The countries with great industrial production are the United States, Japan, China , Germany , UK and France.


   2. Indicate if it refers to heavy industry, artisanal handicraft or big industry:

Cars are manufactured

Vases are produced

Computers are manufactured

Cement is produced

Chemical products are produced

They work in small workshops

The steel and iron industry

They build planes

Artisans work


    3. Trade

   It is an exchange of goods where some people buy what they need and others sell their surplus. There are different types of trading:
   - National trade is made between the different regions of the same country. For Example: Valencia sells oranges to the rest of Spain and Catalonia sells the machinery that produces.
   - International trade is made between different countries. For example: Chile sells copper to America, Japan, China and Mexico and buys goods to other countries.
   It can be of two types:
   - Export is to ship commodities to other countries for sale. The countries with the highest export are those of the euro zone, the U.S., Germany, UK and Japan. Developed countries export road vehicles, machinery, chemicals products and electrical appliances. Undeveloped countries export agricultural products, fuels and minerals.
   - Import is to bring a product into a country to be sold. The difference between exports and imports of a country is called balance of trade. If a country imports more than it exports, the trade balance is negative.


   4. Indicate if they refer to national trading, international trading, export or import:

Between many countries

Between many regions

What we sell to other countries

What we buy from other countries






   5. Transport

   Transportation is the movement of raw or manufactured materials from one place to another. They have had a decisive influence on the development of industry and trade. The main means of transport are:

   - The railway is the most economical means for transporting heavy goods over long distances. it works as a means of transport to passengers in high-speed trains or AVE.

   - The ship is used to transport bulky commodities such as oil, natural gas, coal, etc. They are also used for passenger transport and tourism using large cruisers.

   - The car and truck used for road transport. Freeways (where we pay) and highways (free of payment) are special roads that facilitate land crossings.

   - The plane is faster but more expensive transport. It is profitable to make long distance transport of lightweight and valuable goods.


   6. If these sentences refer to railway, ship, car or plane:

It is the fastest transport

Oil tanker

The AVE is An example

Road transport

There are big cruisers

There freeways and highways

It is the most expensive transport

For heavy ground substances


   7. Communications

   Men cannot live in isolation. To interact with each other, communication channels are needed.

   - Traditional media have been:
   + Mail to transport letters and small items;
   + Phone, fixed and mobile, to transmit words and sounds;
   + And telegraph that sends messages through telegrams.

   - The mass media transmit news to many people at once and the main ones are:
   + Radio transmits news, music and variety programs through sound waves (see the picture).
   + The press, through the newspapers spread news , opinion , movie and theater reviews.
   + Television Transmits image and sound at the same time while transmitting news, movies, documentaries and sports.

   - The modern media are internet and personal blogs, through people can communicate to the whole world a lot of information.


   8. Indicate if these media are traditional, mass or modern:

A web page

By sound waves

By email

Through newspapers

Personal blogs

It is fixed or mobile

It Sends telegrams

Image and sound



 
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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
Plaza Playa de Aro, 3, 1º DO 44002-TERUEL