Production sources


   1. Energy Sources
  
For the development of the economy of the country and especially of the industry, energy sources are needed. The most important are: oil, natural gas, electricity , coal and alternative energies .
   - Oil is currently the main source of energy. Chemical derivatives are also obtained.
The major producers are the United States, China, Russia and Saudi Arabia.
   - Natural gas is a source of cheap and clean energy.
The Producers are Russia, United States, United Kingdom and Algeria.

   - The electricity is produced in hydroelectric plants (dams), in thermal plants (coal) and nuclear plants through nuclear fission.
   - The coal produces heat and force to move machines in the industry.
The most important producers are China, United States, Australia, India, South Africa and Russia.

   - Alternative energies are the new types of energy characterized by being cheaper, cleaner and almost inexhaustible. The main ones are: wind power is produced by wind, solar power produced by photovoltaic panels and tidal power produced by tides.


   2. Choose one of these words and Answer: coal, oil, natural gas, electricity or alternative energies:

It Produces heat and force

Cheap and clean energy

Almost inexhaustible

Wind Power

It is extracted in South Africa

There is in Algeria

The main source of energy

It is in hydroelectric plants

They are the new types of energy

There is in thermal plants

Chemicals products are obtained

Tidal power


    3. Agriculture

   Through agricultural, land is cultivated for food and industrial products. Agriculture can be extensive and intensive.
   - Extensive agriculture (see side picture). Large fields with few people are cultivated. Crops have increased and manual labor of the farmer has reduced. This is because of the following factors:
   + Modern irrigation systems such as drip and sprinkling irrigation.
   + Mechanization with large tractors, combine harvester, seed drill, etc.
   + The selection of seeds that increase the quantity and quality of crops.
   + The use of chemical fertilizers that increase soil fertility.
   + The use of insecticides and herbicides, which helps overcome pests.
   - Intensive agriculture occurs when there are many workers and little land. The work is done by man and animal and the performance is poor.


   4. Answer if these sentences refer to the extensive and intensive agriculture:

Few farmers do it

There are a lot of workers

Tractors are used

Domestic animals are used

Drip or sprinkling irrigation

Insecticides are used

Performance is poor

They select seeds






    5. Animal husbandry

   it is the exploitation of domestic animals for meat , milk, leather and wool. Animals help with his strength in the farm work. The main livestock species are bovine (bulls and cows), ovine (sheep) and pigs (swine).

   There are three types of Animal husbandry:

   - Nomadic Animal husbandry: the shepherd travels steppe or desert areas looking for grass for the flocks. It develops in Central Asia and the African savannas and steppes.

   - Transhumance Animal husbandry: It is characteristic of civilized countries. Because of the climate change, pastors must migrate from one region to another. In summer they seek grass in the mountains and cold regions. In winter they go to warmer lands. These movements are called transhumance. it has gained a lot of importance In Spain . It is also practiced in Italy, Greece, Asia Minor, North Africa and France.

   - Intensive Animal husbandry: The animals are often confined in stables or large farms. There have been positive changes as:

   + The choice of breeds that provide high performance.

   + Compound feed have been incorporated in the food of livestock.

   + Pests and diseases were defeated.

   + Commercialization has improved.


   6. Answer if it refers to nomadic or transhumance Animal husbandry:

There is selection of breeds

They constantly travel

They have defeated the pests

They move in summer and winter

Commercialization has improved

It develops in Central Asia

It is practiced in Spain and Italy

They use feed


   7. Fishing
  
Through fishing, fishes and other animals are removed. we can distinguish four types: recreational fishing, inshore fishing, deep-sea fishing and great fishing .
   - The recreational fishing on rivers and lakes. We obtain the salmon and trout.
   - The inshore fishing is exercised near ports and use small boats.
   - The deep-sea fishing is carried away from the coast, for a very long time. It uses modern and traditional techniques and medium vessels.
   - The great fishing with great ships equipped with technical tools such as radar and sonar to locate shoals. They have refrigeration facilities to storage and keep the fisheries. They perform long fishing campaigns.


   8. Answer if it refers to recreational, inshore, deep-sea or great fishing

They use radar and sonar

It is done in rivers and lakes

It Uses small boats

It is exercised near ports

It Use Medium Boats

It Freezes fishes

We obtain Salmon and trout

They use a median time

Long-term campaigns



 
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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
Plaza Playa de Aro, 3, 1º DO 44002-TERUEL