Human musculoskeletal system

   1. The musculoskeletal system

   The human body is supported by an internal scaffold composed of bones. We have more than two hundred bones that form the skeleton.

   In the movement of any body part, bones and muscles participate. They create the musculoskeletal system.


   2. skeleton

   The skeleton of man is 10 to 12 kilograms.

   We will study the principal bones of the human being:

   In the head, we distinguish:

   The frontal (in the forehead and the mandible which we move when we eat or speak).

   In the trunk (chest and abdomen) we have:

   Clavicle (between scapula and sternum),

   Scapula (wide bone that joint the humerus and clavicle),

   Sternum (in front of the chest),

   Ribs (which protect the lungs),

   The vertebral column (with the vertebrae) and The pelvis (hip)

   In the upper limbs (arms) are:

    The humerus (arm), the radius and ulna (forearm), carpus (wrist), metacarpal, bones (hand) and finger bones.

   In the lower limbs (legs), we distinguish:

   The femur (thigh), kneecap (knee), the tibia (anterior leg bone), the fibula (posterior leg bone) and in the foot, the tarsal, metatarsal and toes bones.


   3. Answers with the name of the bone or bones that correspond:

In the forehead

When we eat, we move it

It is in the shoulder

Anterior chest part

They protect the lungs

It joints the humerus and clavicle

It contains vertebrae

In the hip

In the anterior chest part

In the arm

In the wrist

In the hand

In the thigh

In the knee

In the leg

In the leg

In the foot

In the wrist

In the forearm

In the Thigh

In the arm

In the forearm

In the foot

In the hand






    4. Muscles

   Muscles produce movement by following the instructions of the brain and they have the ability to expand and contract moving the bones.

   The muscles are attached to bones by tendons and constitute what we call the flesh.

   On the side pictures, we see the humerus, the biceps and triceps and the forearm bones: the radius and ulna. The union of the bones is called joints. In this case, the elbow is the joint between the humerus and the ulna and radius.

   When the triceps contracts and the biceps relaxes or stretches, the forearm is dropped. (See the upper picture).

   When the brain gives the order to lift the hand, the biceps contracts and the triceps relaxes or stretches. This forearm and hand raise. These two muscles act oppositely.

   The best known muscles are the trapezius which is in the neck and lift the head, the masseter which moves the mandible when we chew, the pectorals that lift the arms and help us to breathe, the biceps and triceps in the arm, the twins in the leg or calf and the gluteus that form the buttocks and support the whole body on the legs.


   5. Answers with the right muscle:

It is in the neck

It is in the arm

It moves the mandible

They raise the arms

It is in the arm

It is in the leg

They form buttocks

It moves the mandible

It raises the head


    6. Hygiene of musculoskeletal system

    Bones and muscles are exposed to many accidents and we must be taken into account:

   - During the period of bone growth, they need foods rich in calcium and phosphorus, such as milk, cheese, nuts and legumes. It is also advisable to take vitamin D foods such as eggs and fish.

   - Muscles need protein from meat.

   - Both the muscles and bones need exercise to develop. Inactivity results in weak musculoskeletal system

   - Deformation of the vertebral column should be avoided. In the upper picture, we see that when we study in a leaning position, the scoliosis occurs. When we lean much on the table, the kyphosis occurs.


   7. Answer if these advices are correct or incorrect:

Eat legumes

Do not eat fish

Do little exercise

Sit up straight when we study

Eat foods with calcium

Leaning on the table

Have a leaning body

Eat cheese and nuts



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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
Plaza Playa de Aro, 3, 1º DO 44002-TERUEL