1. The plants

   We found plants in many places: in the wet and dry land, in the fertile land, in the crevices of the rocks, in the high mountains, in the flat land and in the seabed.

   Two factors affect the development of plants: the land and the climate (water, temperature, sunlight and wind).

   The vegetable kingdom includes beings that are born, grow, reproduce and die, but do not walk or feel.

  We distinguish four parts in plants: root, stem, leaves and flowers.

   In the left picture, we can see a plant and its indicated parts.

  2. The root

   The root grows underground and its mission is to support and storage of food and nutrients the plant.

   In the picture, we can see various parts of the root:

   - Primary root: the thickest and main root.

   - Secondary roots: they are branches that emerge from the primary root.

   - Root hair: they collect water and food materials from the earth.

   - Root cap: it is a kind of cap which protects the last part of the root against friction.

   3. Choose one of these words: primary root, secondary root, root hair or root cap:

Parts that emerge from primary root

Last part of the root

The thickest part

It absorbs water

    4. Types of roots

   According to the picture above, the types of roots can be:

   - Branched root such as apple (normal root).

   - Napiform root such as carrot and pea.

   - Fibrous or fasciculated root as wheat.

   5. What kinds of roots do these plants have? Branched, Napiform or fibrous:

The wheat

The pea

The apple tree

The carrot

   6. The stem

   The stem is the part of the plant that grows above the ground. In the picture, we can see that the size of the plants can be of four types:

   - Small herbs, very close to the ground.

   - Tall herbs

   - Shrubs

   - Trees

   7. Answer if these sentences are true or false:

Shrubs are larger than tall herbs

Trees are smaller than the small herbs

Tall herbs are larger than trees

Shrubs are larger than small herbs

Small herbs are smaller than trees

Trees are smaller than Shrubs

   8. Leaves

   They are green layers coming out of the stem or branches. The petiole is the stalk attaching the leaf to the stem. The enlarged part of the leaf is called foliar limb, it has an upper surface or adaxial and a lower surface or abaxial. The foliar limb has nerves.

   9. Indicate an answer: petiole , foliar limb , adaxial or abaxial:

Enlarged part of the leaf

Stalk attaching the leaf to the stem

Upper surface of the leaf

Lower surface of the leaf

   10. Types of leaves

   According to the figure, we distinguish five kinds of leaves: single, compound (there are five in the picture), dentate (it has shape of teeth at the margin), ovate (oval-shaped) and cordate (heart-shaped).

   11. Kinds of plants

   Plants have many differences in size, shape and ways of living. Plants can be divided into two groups: non-flowering and flowering plants.

   a) Cryptogams or non-flowering plants can be divided into three groups:

   - The thallophytes, which have no root, no stem, and no leaves. It has an undifferentiated body that forms the thallus. For example: algae, fungus and lichens.

   - The mosses, which are plants with stem and leaves, but they have no true roots or flowers. Example: the moss.

   - The pteidophyta, is non-flowering plants with root stem and leaves. Example: the ferns.

   b) The phanerogams: all flowering plants with root stem and leaves. Examples: green beans, apple tree, pear, pine, fir tree, etc. In the following lessons, we will study the phanerogams.

   12. Choose the correct word: thallophytes, mosses, phanerogams, pteidophyta:

The fungus is

The apple tree is

The fern is

The moss is

The alga is

The pine is

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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
Plaza Playa de Aro, 3, 1º DO 44002-TERUEL