9. The feelings
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  1. Classification of feelings

      We can perceive feelings as an emotional state of pleasure or pain which share every vital role.

   It can be classified into three groups:

   a) Sensitive feelings. They are the ones to go with which sensations, that is, the emotional state of the emotions. For example: the pleasant savour of a fruit or a drink; the cold on our feet in winter or the warm sensation in summer; the pleasant caress in our skin or a tickling sensation.

   All these feelings are external and located in different parts of the body.

   b) Vital feelings. They arise from a good or bad organic function. For example, having good or bad health, vitality or exhaustion, the will to live or apathy. These feelings are not located in a specific part of the body.

   c) Spiritual feelings. They take place in intimacy. We can distinguish four types:

   - Aesthetic feelings, which emerge from the contemplation of beauty through painting, music, poetry, etc.

   - Intellectual feelings as the happiness for a scientific discovery, for resolve a problem or for understand a philosophical theory.

   - Moral feelings, as the intimate pleasure of doing good to others, helping the needy, dominate our passions and others.

   - Religious feelings are the highest of spiritual ones: they allow us to discover the relation between God and the world, to trust in the providence and wait for the gifts from Heaven.

  A. Answer with one of these letters: a, b, c. (If it turns red, then your

  1. Feelings go with a ... function

    a. vegetative
    b. vital
    c. material


  2. A pleasant taste is a ... feeling

    a. sensible
    b. spiritual
    c. aesthetic


 3. Having good health is a ... feeling

    a. sensible
    b. intellectual
    c. vital


 4. To trust in the providence is a ... feeling

    a. religious
    b. vital
    c. sensible


 5. Solve a problem is a ... feeling

    a. moral
    b. aesthetic
    c. intellectual


 6. Feeling tickles is a ... feeling

    a. aesthetic
    b. sensible
    c. spiritual


  2. Features of an affective life

   There are four:

   a) Intimacy. Affections are closer to the self, instead of the knowledge. It is attached and melted to the body and soul.

   b) Relativity. A thing could be perceived with different feelings depending of the subject. A poor man who receives 100 euros is happier with that than a rich man would be.

   c) Contrast. A feeling is stronger or weaker according the feeling experienced before. If a person is sad and receives good news, he will be happier than in other case.

   d) Accustomation. An event could produce a great joy the first time we face it, but, after a while, it hardly affects us.

  B. Answer with the letters a, b or c.

  1. Feelings are related to the self by

    a. relativity
    b. intimacy
    c. contrast


  2. It affects us more than knowledge by

    a. accustomation
    b. contrast
    c. intimacy


 3. After a while, it affect us less by

    a. relativity
    b. accustomation
    c. intimacy


 4. A thing could be perceived in a different way by

    a. intimacy
    b. relativity
    c. accustomation


 5. Affections are experimented in our body and soul by

    a. intimacy
    b. relativity
    c. accustomation


 6. Affection depends on the feelings experienced before by

    a. relativity
    b. intimacy
    c. contrast


  3. Principles and laws of a feeling

   We find some differences in the sentimental life, unlike intellectual life.

   a) Hearth has its motives, which reason does not always know. Sometimes, the heart is not agree with the head.

   b) The hearth cannot be forced. It could be advised, persuaded, the most positive side of a matter could be introduced, but it cannot be forced by an imperative. It cannot be ordered to love somebody.

   c) We love good (or for what we think is good) and hate evil (or what we understand as evil). To awaken love to something or somebody we can emphasise its good qualities, and to encourage hate we exaggerate the bad ones.

   d) The hate we feel for something or somebody is derivative of the love for its opposite. We hate vice because we love virtue. We reject lie because we are in search of truth.

   e) We can love and hate at the same time, although we can esteem some qualities and disregard some faults.

   f) If our happiness is shared with others, it increases; if our sorrow is shared, it decreases.

  C. Answer the following questions with a, b or c.

  1. Heart cannot be

    a. advised
    b. persuaded
    c. forced


  2. Hearth has reasons reason cannot

    a. understand
    b. accept
    c. condemn


 3. We can love and hate at the same

    a. chance
    b. time
    c. alternation


 4. Happiness, when shared

    a. increases
    b. decreases
    c. doesn’t change


 5. We hate evil because we love

    a. truth
    b. virtue
    c. falseness


 6. We love good and hate the

    a. nice
    b. beautiful
    c. evil


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