3. Sensation
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  1. What is a sensation?

     External objects give an impression to the senses and are perceived by a reason, that is, to obtain an idea or some experience of them.

    By our five senses we can acquire a “sensitive” knowledge of what is material and specific. By our reason we obtain an “intellectual” knowledge, which is abstract and spiritual.

    Sensitive knowledge (from an inferior order) is sensation, perception and image. Intellectual knowledge (from a higher order) is concept, judgment and reason.

      A sensation is a conscious impression of a material object in the sense organs: sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch.

    Elements that take part in sensations are three: physical, physiological and psychical.

    When we hear a song, physical factor is the vibrating air, physiological factor is the operations in the eardrum, the middle ear ossicles, the labyrinth and the auditory nerve, which sends the impression to the brain, and psychic factor is to ear a song and know that it like us.

    Physical factor is outside us, physiological one is in our body and psychic one is in our soul.   

  A) Choose the correct answer: a, b, c.

  1. External objects impress

    a. the senses
    b. the reason
    c. the memory


  2. Which one obtains the idea of knowledge?

    a. senses
    b. memory
    c. reason


 3. Perception is knowledge of the following type

    a. intelectual
    b. imaginative
    c. sensitive


 4. Reason is a knowledge of the following type:

    a. sensitive
    b. intelectual
    c. imaginative


 5. Vibrating air is a factor of the following type:

    a. physical
    b. physiological
    c. psychic


 6. Psychic factor is

    a. outside us
    b. in our soul
    c. in our body


  2. Types of sensations

   Sensations can be differentiated by the senses that perceived them.

    It is commonly believed that senses are five: sight, taste, smell, hearing and touch. But, recently, it has been discovered that the sense of touch is very complex. In addition to the pressure, we can also notice cold and warm temperatures and physical pain. According to these, there are eight types of sensation: visual, hearing, olfactory, gustatory, pressure, cold, warm and physical pain.

    Visual sensations are perceived by the eye, where the cornea, the choroid, the vitreous humor, the pupil, the lens and the retina are founded. Though the optic nerve, visual sensations are transmitted to the brain.

    Hearing sensations are perceived by the ear. In it, we can find the external ear, the ear canal, the middle ear (eardrum, hammer, anvil, timpani and stirrup), and the inner ear (semi-circular canal, cochlea, and vestibule) Through the auditory nerve vibrations arrived to the brain.

    Gustatory sensation is perceived by the taste buds, located in the tongue. Flavors are four: sweet, sour, bitter and salt.

    Smell is perceived by the pituitary gland on the nostrils

    Pressure is perceived by several parts of the body: the tip of the tongue, the tip of your fingers, the lips, arms and back

    Cold and hot sensations are perceived by the nervous system’s corpuscles, distributed along the body. The corpuscles of Krause perceive cold, and the corpuscles of Ruffini perceive hot

    Pain is perceived by all the senses if the emitter is very aggressive. Thus, a very bright light, a strong noise or an intense hot could be painful.

  B)Choose the correct answer: a, b, c.

  1. Which sense is very complex?

    a. Inner ear
    b. Touch
    c. Smell


  2. It is believed that sensations are

    a. five
    b. eight
    c. nine


 3. Visual sensations are perceived by the

    a. inner ear
    b. smell
    c. eye


 4. The snail is founded in

    a. the inner ear
    b. the eye
    c. the tongue


 5. The main flavors are

    a. three
    b. four
    c. five


 6. The corpuscles that pick up the sensation of cold are called from

    a. Ruffini
    b. Socrates
    c. Krause


  3. Perception

   While a sensation is to notice a characteristic of an object, perception is to perceive the whole object, obtaining several sensations at the time.

    Perception is constituted by a series of sensations and images. When we perceive something we have sensations of the same moment and also sensations and memories from the past.

    Sensations of the present and images from the past define a system, a well-connected conjoint.  Due to that, it is difficult to separate what is sensed from what is imagined. Sensations of past and present conform a system, a well-formed conjoint, in a way that makes difficult to separate what is felt from what is imagined.

    For example, if we see an apple, we have a sensation of its colour, size and aspect. But to these sensations we must add the memories of its flavour, softness, the images of other apples...

    While watching the picture, our perception of it will be different depending of the images we have in our mind at the moment. The picture is obviously the same, but some people see a duck’s head and others see a rabbit’s head.

    If somebody never has seen a duck, that person has not the image of a duck in his imagination, so it is impossible for him to recognize a duck in a picture. Perception is decided by subjective elements, the memories from before.

  C) Choose the correct answer: a, b, c.

  1. We perceive a whole object thanks to the

    a. perception
    b. sensation
    c. imagen


  2. What takes part in perception?

    a. sensations and images
    b. senses and sensations
    c. images and memories


 3. Images are from

    a. the present
    b. the past
    c. both of them


 4. If we add flavor and softness to an apple, we have a/an

    a. sensation
    b. imagination
    c. perception


 5. In the picture, we can clearly see

    a. a duck
    b. a rabbit
    c. it depends on the images you have


 6. Perception is decided by elements which are

    a. fantastical
    b. subjective
    c. complex


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