2. Psychology
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  1. The man

      Men are a summary or compendium of the whole universe. In them, we find all the types of creatures that exist.

      In the Universe are minerals, vegetables animals and spiritual beings. Man’s body has in common with minerals that it is composed of the same chemical elements: carbon, phosphorus, sulphur, iron, etc.

      In the same way as vegetables does, man has a life, so he born, grows, breeds and dies.    Man has knowledge, memories; he feels pain and pleasure and moves from a place to another as animals do.  

     And, at last, man has a divine soul, which makes him to think and decide in spiritual terms.

    Man is, at the same time, mineral, vegetal, animal and spiritual being. We can say that he is a compendium of the universe or a microcosm.

  A) Choose the correct answer: a, b, c.

  1. A compendium of the universe is the

    a. vegetal
    b. animal
    c. man


  2. He moves constantly, as the

    a. animals
    b. minerals
    c. vegetables


 3. Which one has a spiritual soul?

    a. A man
    b. A vegetable
    c. An animal


 4. Vegetables

    a. move from a place to another
    b. born, grow and die
    c. have memories


 5. Animals

    a. have a soul
    b. think
    c. have memories and movement


 6. Man is a/an

    a. universe
    b. microcosm
    c. angel


  2. Definition of Psychology

    Psychology is the science of the soul (psyque = soul;  logos = science)

    Definition: Psychology is the science which studies the nature, abilities and operations of the soul.

     But the nature and abilities of a soul must be known through their operations. Then, we observe that man can think and, therefore, he has the skill of thinking. Man has a beginning, an element of spiritual nature, which we called soul.

    Psychology tries to know how our mind works and the nature of man, but this is a hard work. The human intellect finds material things easier to understand than spiritual things. Because of these, Physics, Chemicals and natural sciences have been developed. But to understand our own soul we have a long way to go.

    The philosopher Socrates said: “Know yourself”, and moralists from all times have searched inside the human heart and soul.

  B) Choose the correct answer: a, b, c.

  1. The science of the soul is the

    a. Psychology
    b. Metaphysics
    c. Ethics


  2. Psychology studies

    a. minerals and vegetables
    b. animal’s skills
    c. the nature, skills and abilities of the human soul


 3. Thinking is a

    a. nature
    b. ability
    c. operation


 4. Knowledge is a/an

    a. nature
    b. ability
    c. operation


 5. Psychology is a science which is very

    a. difficult
    b. easy
    c. plain


 6. ""Know yourself" was said by

    a. Aristotle
    b. Socrates
    c. Cervantes


  3. Psychic phenomenon

      There are four types of psychic phenomena: knowledge, feelings, tendencies and movements.

      - Knowledge is the pattern of the things in us. Our senses receive events and our reason understand them. That impression or understanding is the knowledge. Example: thanks to my sight I can see a table, and my reason understands that this is a table, similar to others.

      - Feelings are the affections, the pleasure or pain which is attached to every movement of body or soul. Example: when I see a cleaned table, I feel pleased.  

     - Tendencies are the desire to use something. Example: when I see a table, I have the desire of lunch on it.

      - Movement is the realization of the tendency. Example: Finally, I put my food and cutlery over the table for lunch.

  C) Choose the correct answer: a, b, c.

  1. Psychic phenomena are

    a. three
    b. four
    c. five


  2. The pattern of the things in us is the

    a. tendency
    b. knowledge
    c. movement


 3. Which one perceives the traces of the senses?

    a. the reason
    b. the sight
    c. the hearing


 4. Pain and pleasure are part of the

    a. knowledge
    b. movement
    c. feeling


 5. Desire is a

    a. tendency
    b. movement
    c. feeling


 6. The fulfilment of a tendency is a

    a. knowledge
    b. feeling
    c. movement


| Educational applications | Philosophy | In  Spanish | Interactive |

®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
Plaza Playa de Aro, 3, 1º DO 44002-TERUEL