1. Metaphysics
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  1. The meaning of Metaphysics

   The word Metaphysics comes from the Greek phrase “metá ta physiká”, which means beyond the Physics.

   It is a science deeper than Physics and studies the object behind or beyond the physics object.

   It is said that Andronicus of Rhodes (1st century BC) when classified the works of Aristotle found out some papers dealing with matters very different from the others. They were very abstract and referred to non-sensitive things, out of senses’ reach. Andronicus placed these books after those of Physics, and so they were called “the books after or beyond Physics ones”.

   The name is fully fortuitous, but quite right, because Metaphysics deals with an object that cannot be perceived by the senses.

   Metaphysics studies the being in the most abstract way and get rid of all the external appearances, such as colour, shape, size, weight, etc. If we watch a pen or a computer and remove all their qualities or external appearances, we keep with a pen as a being, and a computer as a being too. Everything is something and has a being.

  A. Choose the right letter: a, b, c. (If the letter turns into red the answer is correct)

  1. “metá ta physiká” is

    a. Metaphysics
    b. Psychology
    c. Teodicea

 

  2. Who called it Metaphysics?

    a. Aristotle
    b. Plato
    c. Andronicus of Rhodes

 

 3. Metaphysics deals with an object

    a. known by sight
    b. not perceived by senses
    c. perceived by hearing

 

 4. Metaphysics deals with being in a way

    a. specific
    b. abstract
    c. sensitive

 

 5. Metaphysics gets rid of

    a. essences
    b. fantasy
    c. qualities or appearances

 

 6. Everything is something and has a(n)

    a. being
    b. existence
    c. value

 

  2. The common being

   Entity is the same as being. We can say that the object of Metaphysics is the common being, that attribute which is common to all beings, due to the fact that all of them are something and so have a being or entity.

   Physics, chemistry and other sciences study things in an abstract way, focusing on their general qualities (density, heat, strength, life, etc.).

   Mathematics studies the quantity of things. It is more abstract than the previous sciences, because it studies the quantity of physical, chemical, biological, etc. phenomena.

   Metaphysics is even more abstract, because studies something common to everything. The concept of being or entity is applicable to everything, material or spiritual.

  B. Choose the right letter: a, b, c.

  1. Entity is the same as

    a. existence
    b. being
    c. value

 

  2. Every being is something. Entity is

    a. particular
    b. specific of each thing
    c. common

 

 3. Physics and chemistry focus on

    a. being
    b. entity
    c. general qualities

 

 4. The quantity of things is studied by:

    a. Physics
    b. Mathematics
    c. Metaphysics

 

 5. The most abstract one is:

    a. Metaphysics
    b. Mathematics
    c. Chemistry

 

 6. Metaphysics studies

    a. what is material and spiritual
    b. the quantity of beings
    c. the general qualities

 

  3. First in itself and last for us

   As Aristotle said, Metaphysics is the first science in itself and the last one for us.

   It is the first in itself due to its significance, because it deals with the most radical and decisive matters.

   It is the last one for us due to the fact that it is the most difficult and we achieve it in last place when we go into detail about our knowledge. The sensitive knowledge is the easiest, because we need only open our eyes to see. But Metaphysics is the most abstract one and requires that reason makes a greater effort.

   All men have metaphysical ideas and ask themselves about the mystery of life, death, being and nothingness.

   Why are there beings in the world? What for? Who has created them? Which is the meaning of pain? What comes after death? Is there anything spiritual or everything is material in the end? All men have set out these questions and their answers are clear or dark, right or wrong, comforting or distressing. They live according to the answers they have provided to themselves about these questions. What they think, feel and do are influenced or determined by these metaphysical ideas.

  C. Choose the right letter: a, b, c.

  1. Who said Metaphysics to be the first science?

    a. Andronicus of Rhodes
    b. Socrates
    c. Aristotle

 

  2. It is the first one because

    a. it deals with radical matters
    b. we learnt it as young boys
    c. we perceive it by the senses

 

 3. Metaphysics is the last one because is the most

    a. easy
    b. difficult
    c. entertaining

 

 4. Who have philosophical ideas?

    a. some men
    b. all men
    c. only philosophers

 

 5. The answers to metaphysical questions are

    a. clear or dark
    b. always right
    c. always wrong

 

 6. Men live according to

    a. what TV tells
    b. what friends say
    c. their metaphysical answers

 




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