3. Ways of being

  1. Real being and being of reason

   There are innumerable beings or entities in the world, but we can group together in several types. There are real beings and beings of reason, material and spiritual, necessary and contingent.

   Real being exists out of mind, and being of reason is built in mind and does not exist out of her. For instance, some real beings are a pen, a computer, a table; a Siren, a triangle, honesty and wisdom, are being of reason.

   Being of reason can be: negative, ideal, fictitious

   Negative beings of reason are those built by reason without any correspondence with any being outside. For instance, not-white, not-table and the nothingness. They are negative beings of reason, because in fact there are not such objects, they do not exist due to the fact that they are negations of being. What really exists is white, table and being, but not their negations.

   Abstract ideas are ideal beings of reason, but they do not exist in reality. For example, there can be tables with triangular, square or circular table-tops, but triangle, square and circle do not exist anywhere.

   Fictitious being of reason is built by our imagination (mixing the real) producing of pretending beings that do not exist. For example: a dragon, a Siren, a fairy, a witch, are fictitious being of reason.

  A. Choose the right Letter: a, b, c. (If the letter turns into red the answer is co

  1. The being that exists out of mind is

    a. of reason
    b. imaginary
    c. real

  2. The being that is built by reason, is

    a. of reason
    b. imaginary
    c. real

 3. Not-white and the nothingness are beings

    a. real
    b. negative of reason
    c. fictitious of reason

 4. Triangle and square are

    a. negative beings of reason
    b. spiritual beings
    c. ideal beings of reason

 5. Dragon and Siren are

    a. negative beings of reason
    b. fictitious beings of reason
    c. ideal beings of reason

 6. Pen and computer are beings

    a. real
    b. ideal
    c. fictitious

  2. Material and spiritual beings

   Material being takes up a place, everybody can see it and it has physical attributes such as weight, density, colour, etc. But there are spiritual beings too, even though they cannot be seen nor can be touched. For instance, material beings are a table, a watch, a telephone. Spiritual beings are justice, honesty and wisdom. They cannot be seen but are real.

   Related to men they have material things such as heart, stomach and arms, but they have another spiritual things (psychic) such as knowledge and feelings.

   Heart and lung can be seen through Xray scanning and other medical devices, but knowledge and feelings cannot be seen through any device.

   There are material goods, such as a state or a car, and spiritual goods, such as honesty, dignity and wisdom.

   We can differentiate necessary being from contingent one. It is necessary the being that is and cannot stop being. And it is contingent the being that is and can stop being. All beings in this world are contingent, because right now they are and within a time can stop being. Only God is the necessary being, because always is.

  B. Choose the right Letter: a, b, c.

  1. What sort of being takes up a place?

    a. material
    b. spiritual
    c. of reason

  2. Those beings that cannot be seen and are real are

    a. real
    b. of reason
    c. spiritual

 3. Spiritual beings

    a. can be seen through Xray scanning
    b. cannot be seen
    c. can be seen through medical devices

 4. A car and a TV are

    a. spiritual beings
    b. material beings
    c. beings of reason

 5. Man and houses are

    a. necessary beings
    b. historical beings
    c. contingent beings

 6. God is a

    a. necessary being
    b. contingent being
    c. being of reason

  3. Being, exist, stay

   We have to differentiate between being and exist. Everything that exists is, but not every being exists. Spiritual beings are real beings that exist. Honesty and wisdom are being and exist. Other examples: this computer is and exists, the nohingness is a being of reason, but does not exist. Ideal beings of reason do not exist too, nor fictitious beings or reason. They do not exist, but they are.

   The term being is very extensive, more than the term existing. The nothingness, the triangle and the dragon are beings of reason, but do not exist.

   It is not the same to be than to stay. To stay points out to be in some place. Material beings stay in a place and occupy a space. Spiritual beings are and exist, but they are not occupying any space, i.e., they do not stay.

   Some examples: Mr González “is” born in Madrid and “stays” right now ill in the hospital. The brain stays in the head and the heart in the thorax; but where are thoughts and feelings? These are spiritual beings that are but do not stay in a specific place.

  C. Choose the right Letter; a, b, c.

  1. Computer and pen

    a. only are
    b. are and exist
    c. only exist

  2. The nothingness and fairies

    a. are and exist
    b. neither are nor exist
    c. are but do not exist

 3. Triangle and square

    a. are ideal beings that do not exist
    b. are ideal beings that exist
    c. neither are beings nor exist

 4. To occupy some place is

    a. to be
    b. to exist
    c. to stay

 5. Spiritual beings

    a. are and stay
    b. are but do not stay in a place
    c. neither exist nor stay

 6. Brain and heart

    a. are and stay
    b. are but do not stay
    c. stay but do not exist

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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
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