3. The Judgement
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Write on the right side what is missing.

  1. The judgement and its elements

   We call judgement to the mental act in which we affirm o deny a concept from another. For example: The sun is bigger than the Earth and the Moon doesn't have own light.

  In the judgement we affirm or deny something. If there is not affirmation or negation, there is not judgement. Examples: I wish to go for a stroll, it is not a trial. This cyclist runs a lot, it is a trial.

   The elements of the judgement are three: subject, copula and predicate.

   The subject is the person from whom we affirm or deny something. Example: In the judgement "the Sun is bigger than the Earth", the subject is "The Sun".

  The copula is the element that connect the subject and the predicate. It is usually a form of the verb: "is".

   The predicate is what we affirm or deny. In the last example: "bigger than the Earth".

   In the judgement can be missed the copula and the subject too, but never the predicate.

  The judgement can be of two kinds: true and false.

  The judgement is true when it is said what the reality is actually. Or when it is said what the reality is not actually. Example: "The Earth is not as bigger as the Sun", it is a judgement trial.

  The judgement is false when it is said what the reality is not; or when it is said the contrary to what the reality is.

   When the judgement doesn't have subject or copula is irregular.

  A. Answer with one of these letters: a, b, c.

  1. In the judgement

    a. it is given an order
    b. it is asked something
    c. it is affirmed or denied something


  2. The elements of the judgement are

    a. three
    b. two
    c. four


 3. The elements are: subject, copula and

    a. predicate
    b. afirmation
    c. negation


 4. Never can be missed

    a. the subject
    b. the predicate
    c. the copula


 5. The judgement can be true or

    a. affirmative
    b. negative
    c. false


 6. It is said what the reality is actually, is

    a. false
    b. true
    c. doubtful


  2. Classification of the judgement

   They can be classified taking into account the quantity, the quality, the modality and the relation.

   a) According to the quantity, the judgement can be universal (every man is rational) or particular (some man is wise).

   b) According to the quality, the judgement can be affirmative (Ana is hard-working) or negative (Ismael is not thin).

   c) According to the modality, it means, by the way or the strength of union between the predicate and the subject, of a possible way, real or necessary. The judgement can be: problematic (this girl can approve); assertoric or affirmation (Juan has fallen to the floor), or apodictic or without contradiction (triangle must have three angles).

   d)According to the relation, the trial can be hypothetical or that it is supposed that one thing is possible (water boils if it heats to 100 degrees); categorical or final or conclusive (water is composed of oxygen and hydrogen), and disjunctive or that there is opposition between two or more things (water can be in solid, liquid or gaseous state).

   The logical is that the subject be recognized with S and the predicate with P. Example: "All men are mortal”, it is said S is P.

  B. Answer with one of these letters: a, b, c.

  1. According to the quantity, the judgement is universal or

    a. particular
    b. affirmative
    c. negative


  2. The judgement "some man is wise" is

    a. doubtful
    b. universal
    c. particular


 3. By the quality can be affirmative or

    a. universal
    b. negative
    c. particular


 4. The problematic judgement makes reference to the

    a. quantity
    b. quality
    c. modality


 5. "Juan has fallen" is a judgement

    a. problematic
    b. apodictic
    c. assertoric


 6. The judgement "water boils if it heats to 100 degrees" is

    a. hypothetical
    b. categorical
    c. disjunctive


  3. Practical norms

   There are some conditions to make true judgements.

   a) That senses work well to perceive the things correctly and to have clear concepts. It is necessary to pay attention to the reality and to avoid the fantasy and the science fiction.

   b) Don't make hasty judgements, making general conclusions from a particular case. To develop concepts it is necessary to abstract from the common, the essential that we find in the particular things. Before making a judgement it is necessary to see it from different points of view.

   c) To judge we have to set aside the prejudices. We need to keep within the reality and avoiding what seems to us or suits us. The passions clouded the knowledge and advise in a bad way. They distort our judgements, the fantasy, wishes, own interests and above all the prejudices. Some shout to defend their judgements or arguments. But shouting they don't get that their judgements are true.

   d) It is necessary to face the reality, to think and develop concepts and right judgements.

  C. Answer with one of these letters: a, b, c.

  1. It is necessary to pay attention to

    a. own whises
    b. reality
    c. fantasy


  2. To make true judgements, avoid the

    a. fantasy
    b. reality
    c. attention


 3. Avoid the judgements

    a. calm
    b. with attention
    c. hasty


 4. To judge we have to set aside

    a. prejudices
    b. reality
    c. attention


 5. It clouds the knowledge

    a. reality
    b. passions
    c. attention


 6. Some shout to

    a. face the reality
    b. develop concepts
    c. defend their arguments


| Educational applications | Philosophy |  For young | In Spanish | Interactive |

®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
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