1. Logic

  1. Sign and expression

   A sign is a thing related with another one. For example, smoke is a sign of fire; the word pencil is a sign of a writing tool.

   There are two types of signs: the natural and the artificial or conventional ones. Smoke is a natural sign of fire. That is understood by all the people at all times. When smoke ascends everyone knows that there is a fire down.

   The words of a language are artificial or conventional signs. In this case not all peoples understand artificial or conventional signs. For example, the word “house” has a different expression and writing in Spanish, in German or in Chinese.

  Expression is a way of saying what someone is feeling, thinking o willing. Through expression we show our mood, affections and desires by means of attitudes, gestures, motions, etc.

  We express and communicate our thoughts with words.

  We reveal the expression with shouts and gestures and that is common for all men of all races, even among animals. For example: the desire of eating can be expressed by gestures of hands and mouth; the desire of sleeping can be expressed resting your head on your hands.

   But expression through language is exclusive to men and every race or ethnic group has a different language. We express our ideas by means of words.

  A. Choose the right letter: a, b, c. (If the letter turns up read the answer is correct)

  1. A thing that points out another one is

    a. a sign
    b. an expression
    c. a thought

  2. Smoke is a sign

    a. artificial
    b. conventional
    c. natural

 3. Words are signs

    a. natural
    b. usual
    c. artificial

 4. All peoples understand signs

    a. artificial
    b. natural
    c. conventional

 5. Showing your mood is

    a. an expression
    b. a natural sign
    c. an artificial sign

 6. Expressing through language is exclusive to

    a. animals
    b. men
    c. plants


  2. The forms of thought

   Human thinking can be expressed in three ways or structures: concept, judgment and reasoning.

   A concept is a general and abstract idea. For example, we have an idea of what is a car, a TV or a phone. The idea of each thing is their concept.

  A judgment is a statement or a negation of an idea. For instance, the TV is entertaining; some exercises are not easy.

A reasoning is the connection of judgments to draw a conclusion. For example: cats are vertebrate animals, this animal is a cat, so this animal is a vertebrate one.

  B. Choose the right letter: a, b, c.

  1. The forms of thought are

    a. two
    b. three
    c. four

  2. A general and abstract idea is

    a. a concept
    b. a judgment
    c. a reasoning

 3. The negation or affirmation of an idea is

    a. a concept
    b. a judgment
    c. a reasoning

 4. The connection of judgments is

    a. a concept
    b. a judgment
    c. a reasoning

 5. The idea of a car is

    a. a judgment
    b. a reasoning
    c. a concept

 6. “The TV is entertaining”. What is this?

    a. a judgment
    b. a reasoning
    c. a concept






  3. What is Logic?

   Logic is the science that studies the thought, its forms and laws, and gives rules for reasoning correctly

   The word “logic” stems from the Greek term “logos” that means reason and thinking.

  Reasoning is the most important function of men, but there is correct and incorrect reasoning.

   Logic can be general and special.

   General logic studies thinking in general and focuses on concept, judgment and reasoning.

   Special Logic estudies the characteristics of each science in particular. It is not the same Mathematics as Psychology, because Mathematics is an exact science and Psychology is not.

  Logic can be classified as natural and acquired.

   Natural Logic is that typical of certain men who think very well without having studied anything about Logic. They go from one idea to another, drawing correct conclusions and making perfect reasoning.

  Acquired Logic is studied by the laws of this science. When these laws are taken into account we think better or more correctly. This is not acquired in a spontaneous way, but by means of study and reflection.

  C. Write down one of these letters (a, b, c) on the right side:

  1. What science studies human’s thought?

    a. Psychology
    b. Grammar
    c. Logic

  2. What is the most important function of men?

    a. judge
    b. conceptualize
    c. reason

 3. Logic can be classified as

    a. special
    b. theoretical
    c. practical

 4. What type of Logic studies the characteristics of each science?

    a. the general one
    b. the special one
    c. the theoretical one

 5. Logic can be classifies too as

    a. acquired
    b. spontaneous
    c. theoretical

 6. What type of logic studies the laws?

    a. the natural one
    b. the acquired one
    c. the theoretical one




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| Educational applications | Philosophy |
For young |In Spanish | To print |

®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
Plaza Playa de Aro, 3, 1º DO 44002-TERUEL