1. Facts and acts
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  1. Ethics and Morals

   Ethics stands for Greek word ezos=custom, and Morals stand for Latin word mos=custom. Both words have the same meaning. Ethics and Morals are custom science, related not to animal habits but to human customs.

   It is not a normal description about customs, but the study about what should be, what man must do.

   Ethics can be defined as the science researching norms human behavior must conform to.

   Every person, even children, knows what goodness and malice are, justice and injustice, generosity and selfish, etc. But this knowledge is not the same to everybody. Sometimes it becomes devalued, changes or it is rejected because of interests, selfishness, passions, etc.

   That’s why spontaneous moral knowledge has to be elevated to reflexive one, and ethics deals exactly with that kind of knowledge.

   Changes made in the physical world, in the chemical one, etc., are named facts, while changes which man performs are called acts.

   The man performs some acts automatically, without an exercise of his will, such as breathing and digesting; and these are called acts of the man. But we perform other ones willingly, because we want to, such as reading, studying, giving charity, etc. and these are called human acts. Ethics deals with these last ones.

  A. Chose the right letter: a, b, c.

  1. Ethics or morals study

    a. animal customs
    b. human customs
    c. angels customs

 

  2. Ideas of goodness and malice are known by

    a. common people and children
    b. monkeys
    c. snakes

 

 3. Interests, selfishness and passions cause

    a. the change of goodness and justice
    b. reaffirm justice
    c. defend them

 

 4. Changes in physics and chemistry are

    a. acts
    b. customs
    c. facts

 

 5. Changes performed by man are

    a. facts
    b. acts
    c. customs

 

 6. The human acts are made

    a. spontaneously
    b. unwillingly
    c. voluntarily

 

  2. Phisycal and moral law

   Physical laws are the formulas things are subdued, and tell us what the facts are. However, moral laws are the norms that study the human acts.

   Physical laws prevail over things, while moral laws are suggested to men.

   Things do not fail to fulfill physical laws, since their changes happen out of necessity. For instance, stones fall to the floor out of gravity and sugar dissolves in water. They have no freedom to do either one thing or the other.

   Men can fail to fulfill moral laws, which indicate an obligation. Human being can choose, do or not something, do their work in a good or a bad way.

   The moral law is not canceled even though it does not accomplish. On the contrary, the validity and truth of the moral law shines in front of our eyes when it is broken. For example, when criminals of politicians steal money, everybody rejects them for doing an immoral act, such as robbery.

   Some think what force men is their conscience or society or laws approved by parliaments. But political laws, societal thinking and personal conscience can change according to circumstances at the time. They are neither steady nor secure.

   The moral law is a command and an obligation. Only who is morally superior can suggest a law to the man. God is powerful, steady, fair and perfect. He is who gives the moral law that compels all men.

  B. Choose the right letter: a, b, c.

  1. Things are subjected to laws

    a. physical
    b. moral
    c. legal

 

  2. Moral laws are

    a. imposed to the man
    b. formulas required
    c. proposed to the man

 

 3. Before moral laws, the man

    a. obeys necessarily
    b. does not have any freedom
    c. is free to do them or not

 

 4. When moral law does not accomplish

    a. is canceled
    b. is not canceled
    c. disappears

 

 5. Are political laws or his or her own conscience the moral law?

    a. No, because it can change
    b. Yes, because State commands it
    c. Yes, because conscience says that

 

 6. Who can propose a moral law to the man?

    a. Parliament
    b. God
    c. societal thinking

 

  3. Religion, Morals and Law

   We can distinguish the proper field of every domain.

   Religion teaches us the three Christian virtues: faith, hope and charity

   The aim of Morals is the cardinal virtues: prudence, justice, fortitude and temperance.

   Law studies justice and the duty to give each person what is his own.

   These three fields are connected and base each other. So Morals ask of us more than Law and Religion is more demanding than Morals.

   To be entirely good is not enough living as legal norms showed by Law, nor following the drive of a well-trained conscience, but it is necessary to turn our view to God.

   Law, Morals and Religion are like three concentric circles. The smallest is Law, the medium-sized is Morals and the biggest is Religion. Law has its basis on Morals and both of them on Religion.

   The basis of Christian Morals are three:

   a) The man is rational and free

   b) The human soul is immortal

   c) God exists and has made laws to things (physical laws) and to men (moral laws).

   Education is based on these moral principles:

   a) There are good and evil acts

   b) The man has to fulfill the moral law

   c) All their acts have to be guided by their natural and supernatural goal.

  C. Choose the right letter: a, b, c.

  1. The Christian virtues are taught by

    a. Law
    b. Morals
    c. Religion

 

  2. Giving each person what is his own belongs to

    a. Morals
    b. Law
    c. Religion

 

 3. Fortitude and temperance are studied in

    a. Law
    b. Morals
    c. Religion

 

 4. The biggest concentric circle is

    a. Religion
    b. Morals
    c. Law

 

 5. The man is a being

    a. only subordinated to physical laws
    b. omnipotent
    c. rational and free

 

 6. Moral principles are the basis of

    a. Education
    b. Physics
    c. Chemistry

 




| Educational applications | Philosophy |  For young | In Spanish | Interactive |





®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
Plaza Playa de Aro, 3, 1º DO 44002-TERUEL