1. The origin of the Universe

  1. The origin of the Universe

   (Extracts from the documentary “From the science to God”, by F. Manuel M. Carreira S.J. astrophysical and theologian)

    There are a lot of questions joining science, theology and philosophy. The three ways are necessary to discuss about complex topics.

    From these three points of view, the most discussed topic is the origin of the universe, because for long time people have thought that the Universe has always existed. But science tell us the opposite: universe has a starting point. And the most obvious question, even for a child, is: Why the Sun bright? And, since ancient times, the answer is: because it is made of brilliant stuff. But saying that something bright because it bright is not a real answer.

      So, what a scientist say? That the Sun bright because produce energy. And, from where comes that energy? How it is produced? It must be a certain kind of combustible. But the Sun has a limited amount of combustible. Therefore, it will end extinguishing, and these must be applied to the rest of the stars.

    Therefore, if we can see stars in the sky is because they are not eternal. And, as the rest of the Universe, they must use combustible. Consequently, if the Universe is eternal, stars must be turned off. Science has been forced to admit that the universe is not eternal. And then...how old is it? How it started? And how it becomes in what it is today? All these questions are answered b science during the XX century. Scientific methods are the study of what matter does, and must be proved by experimentation.

    Science argues that the Universe is expanding. The fact is known since 1920, but If the Universe is expanding, it means that long time ago it was smaller and smaller, since a point in which it was not bigger than an apple or even an atom.

  A. Answer by clicking one of the letters: a, b, c. (If the letter takes the red color response is correct)

  1. The origin of the universe is studied by

    a. psychology, science and philosophy
    b. science, theology and ethics
    c. science, philosophy and theology

  2. People believed that the Universe existed since

    a. ever
    b. a year
    c. last century

 3. The Sun has a limited amount of

    a. combustible
    b. bright
    c. electricity

 4. The Universe can’t be

    a. a few years old
    b. eternal
    c. a few centuries old

 5. The universe is

    a. focusing
    b. diminishing
    c. expanding

 6. The universe was going

    a. big
    b. small
    c. huge

  2. The Big Bang

   So, how was the universe, then? Physics theories argue that it must be very small. The universe was extremely hot and thick. It was an explosion and, as a result, it continues expanding at the present. And a popular question is: before the great explosion, what was here? And the scientific answer is: there is nothing, because if there is no matter, there is no time. And where the explosion had place? Everywhere and nowhere, because there were not a time before or a space. The only space was a group of extremely dense and hot matter. That theory was proposed by Belgium priest Georges Lemaitre between 1927 and 1930, and was based on Einstein’s equations. Over a recession base he concluded that the universe started by the explosion of a primitive atom, what later was called Big Bang.

    In 1948 it was possible to calculate and prove if the explosion would happen according our theories. And the question is: how can I know if there were a campfire here? I know it if I find hot ashes. So, can we find ashes from the primitive, first fire? And was still hot that fire? In 1948, it was calculated how that explosion take place and what were the rests it left after the explosion. And the ashes are helium, deuterium and hydrogen, as it is believed. The radiation from the explosion was also founded. So this is no more a matter of opinion; it is a fact, without a shadow of a doubt.

  B. Answer by clicking one of the letters: a, b, c.

  1. The universe was extremely hot and

    a. dense
    b. heavy
    c. light

  2. It was some kind of

    a. concentration
    b. diminishment
    c. bang

 3. What was before the explosion?

    a. space
    b. time
    c. nothing

 4. Georges Lemaitre was a priest from

    a. Dutch
    b. Belgium
    c. Germany

 5. The Big Bang was the explosion of

    a. an atom
    b. a kilo of matter
    c. a proton

 6. Helium, deuterium and hydrogen are the ashes of

    a. a bonfire
    b. the Big Bang
    c. a fireplace

  3. Contribution of Philosophy and Theology

   The universe started as a great explosion at the highest temperature and density. Today we know that this event happened 13.700 millions of years ago, with a margin of error of 10%, so we have scientific evidences of its origin. But it is not scientific to talk about what was before the Universe or in other universes, because these can’t be demonstrated.

    And when we know about the scientist part, what Philosophy says? Because everything is born or exists thanks to a superior being, because a thing that does not exists cannot create it. So Philosophy argues that a Creator is needed, but Him is not material and is not subjected to Physical laws or time.

    And who can, with an infinite power, create something from where is nothing? This is what Theology answers. The universe exists because an almighty creator, the most wise and magnanimous (because an infinitely wise and mighty doesn’t need anything) created it for a reason based exclusively on generosity and love. Theology says that the Universe was created for the man, because God doesn’t want to see how the stars burn or how a little lizard runs. He finds a reason creating people who are capable of knowing Him, of show gratitude and share their happiness.

    So we have three points of view: the scientific one, to obtain information, the philosophical one, to elaborate them and be nearer to the Creator and the theological one, to know that the Creator is love, the One who creates everything for man, so we can be with Him and share His happiness

  C. Answer by clicking one of the letters: a, b, c.

  1. The explosion happened

    a. 14.000 millions of years ago
    b. 13.700 millions of years ago
    c. 12.600 millions of years ago

  2. What happens to begin needs another to receive the

    a. existence
    b. essence
    c. life

 3. If the universe exists, it is necessary an

    a. Redeemer
    b. Creator
    c. Saviour

 4. Theology says that our Creator is

    a. almighty
    b. friendly
    c. nice

 5. The Universe was created for the

    a. vegetal
    b. animal
    c. man

 6. God wants that men share with Him his

    a. time
    b. space
    c. happiness

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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
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