Concept of a fraction
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   1.- Concept of a fraction. 

    Three fifths is a fraction which can also be written as 3/5. Here we will use both forms.

    The jar is divided into four measures. ¾ of the jar is full of milk to. There is ¼ that is empty.

   The table is divided into 8 parts. 3 of them are colored in red and 5 of them are not colored, that is 5/8.

   The rectangle is divided into 5 squares: 2 of them are colored in brown (2/5) and the other 3 are colored in blue, that is, 3/5.5.

 In the fraction 3/5, we distinguish the numerator (3) and the denominator (5). This means that the rectangle has been divided into 5 parts and we have taken 3.

   A fraction is one or several equal parts into which the unit is divided.

   Answer these questions:

In the fraction 2/5, the numerator is...

 

In the fraction ¾, the denominator is...

 

In the fraction 3/8, the denominator is...

 

In the fraction 1/3, the numerator is...

 

   2.- Fractional Unit
   
   A fractional unit is each of the parts that are obtained by dividing a unit into equal parts.
   
   Examples: 1/2 (one half), 1/7 (one seventh), 1/8 (one eighth).

   Fractional number, fraction is a set of fractional units.

   Examples: 2/9 (two ninths), 3/10 (three tenths), 4/7 (four sevenths).

   Do this exercise:

What is the fractional unit?

 

What is the fractional number?

 

What is the fractional unit?

 

What is the fractional number?

 

   3.- How to read a fraction?
   
   If the denominator is 2, the fractional unit is a half; if it is 3, the fractional unit is a third; if it is 4, the fractional unit is a fourth; if it is 5, the fractional unit is a fifth, if it is 6, the fractional unit is a sixth, if it is a 7, the fractional unit is a seventh; if it is 8, the fractional unit is an eighth; if it is 9, the fractional unit is a ninth and if is 10, the fractional unit is a tenth. From 11 onward, we add the termination “ths

   Examples: 3/11: three elevenths, 4/12: four twelfths; 4/25: four twenty fifths

   What is the correct fraction?

Seven tenths

 

Three ninth

 

Seven thirteenths

 

Twelve fifteenths

 

   4.- Proper and improper fraction.
   
   If the numerator and the denominator are equal, the fraction is equal to a whole unit.
   
   Examples: 3/3 = 1; 5/5 = 1; 6/6 = 1.

   When the numerator is less than the denominator, it is called proper fraction.

   Examples: 4/6, 2/5, 1/3.

   When the numerator is equal or greater than the denominator, it is called improper fraction.

   Examples: 7/4, 3/3, 6/2.

   Indicate if these are improper or proper fractions:

5/7 is a fraction

 

4/4 is a fraction

 

6/2 is a fraction

 

1/3 is a fraction

 
   5- Mixed numbers.

   How much are 3/2 of cake? They are three halves, that is, a whole cake and a half. 3/2 = 1 1/1. This is a mixed number with a whole number and a fractional part.

   Examples: 6/5 = 1 1/5. It is read one and a fifth.

   Indicate the correct mixed numbers:

Two and three quarters...

 

Three and a fifth...

 

Four and two thirds......

 

Two and five-sixths...

 






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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
Plaza Playa de Aro, 3, 1º DO 44002-TERUEL