The modern world

   1. International agencies and the Catholic Church

   - INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES. To secure peace and avoid new wars, the League of Nations- after the First World War- and the United Nations (UN)- after the Second World War- were founded. The UN objective is to prevent new wars and use its military forces to achieve it.

   The UN acts through the General Assembly, formed by all the Member States, and the Security Council, constituted by five permanent members (EE.UU., Great Britain, France, Russia and China) and six temporary members chosen by the General Assembly.

   The UN is composed by different specialized organisms:

   + UNESCO, the Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

   + WHO. The World Health Organization, it makes elimination of diseases through vaccination campaigns and many investigations.

   + OIT. The International Labour Organization, they job is to improve working conditions.

   + FAO. Food and Agriculture Organization.

   - THE CATHOLIC CHURCH. It always have had the mission of save and maintain peace between all men, and comfort them of the ravages of war. In name of the Church, the Pope or Vicar of Christ have not ceased of condemn violence and corruption in politics. In their encyclicals and speeches, the last Popes bravely condemned many problems, offering Christian answers to all of them. The Popes, with their high moral prestige and a patient and skilfull diplomacy, work for peace and justice. Afterwards Benedicto XVI and Francisco. (see Pope John Paul II picture).

   2. Indica si esto se refiere a los organismos internacionales o a la Iglesia Católica:

The Popes think about many problems

The UN could use militar force

There is a Security Council

A Vicar of Christ

Five permanent members

Chistian answers are offered

The UNESCO and the WHO

They have a high moral prestige

    They have a high moral prestige

   - SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Previous inventions were refined, and there were new ones, as:

   + Air navigation, with supersonic planes and rocket-planes (see the arrival of the first man to the Moon).

   + Underwater navegation, with nuclear submarines.

   + Communication techniques, like television, radio and Internet.

   - BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. It was discovered:

   + Microorganisms, like bacteria, microbes and viruses.

   + Vitamins, hormones, sulfamides, antibiotics and vaccines.

   + Investigations about the human genome and different ways to human reproduction.

   - PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY SCIENCES. New encouraging and astonishing discoveries:

   + The Curies isolated the radium.

   + German Plank established the theory about the "quanta", or the non-continuity of energy.

   + Albert Einstein developed the theory of relativity, which modified the concepts of time, space and universal gravitation.

   + Rutherford discovered the structure of the atom.

   + Oppenheimer, Fermi and Meissner had a great success liberating uranium’s energy by the disintegration of the atom.

   4. Write if these discoveries are related to the fields of science and tecnology, biology or physics and chemics:

Plank and the "quanta" theory

Underwater navigation

Human genome studies

Air navigation

Rutherford and the structure of the atom

The Curies isolated the radium

Vitamins and hormones

Disintegration of the atom

Antibiotics and vaccines

Einstein and the relativity

   5. Modern art

   - ARCHITECTURE. Functional architecture has two features:

   1. Functionalism in all shapes, erasing what could be ornamental or don’t answer to the primary objective of the building.

   2. It arranges to construction materials like reinforcing bar, steel, glass, aluminium, prefabricated clusters, etc.

   - PAINTING. Their aspiration is the pure painting, without personal or Nature motifs, but created by the artist as a combination of geometrical forms, abstractions, subconscious desires and expression of his own intimacy.

   The precedents are in Cezanne and in Post-Impressionists as Gauguin and Van Gogh. The true driving force in the new painting is the French Maurice Denis, who defined painting as “a surface full of colors placed in a certain order”.

   The result of these aspirations of being pure is the abstract art.

   Se distinguen estas tendencias:

   + Fauvism, which is based on the particular interpretation of material things. The creator of the trend was Vlaminck, and the most famous painter was Matisse.

   + Cubism, which only presents geometrical elements full of plain colours and blurred shapes. The creator of Cubism was the Spanish Pablo Picasso.

   + Surrealism, which aspires to be a representation of an inner world of dreams, hallucinations, nightmares and memories locked in the subconscious. Among its representatives are the Spanish Dalí and Miró.

   + Abstract painting, with non-figurative shapes and unnatural colours, the result of the artist’s imagination. Importan names are Mondrián and Malevich. (See Composition II by Mondrián)

   - SCULPTURE. In general, the same tendencies as in painting were followed. Sculptor Arístides Maillol was inspired by Greek sculpture, and Spanish Clará embodied serenity.

   6. Write if these statements are about architecture, painting or sculpture:

Fauvism is based on interpretation

Functionalism is the main objective

Arístides Maillol

Picasso created Cubism

Erase the ornamental

Dalí and Miró were Surrealists

Clará embodies serenity

Abstract painting is based on non-figurative shapes

It arranges to materials

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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
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