Second half of the XIX century

   1. England and France

   - ENGLAND. In the second half of the XIX century England was at the head of the industrialized countries, being the first world power.

   Queen Victoria I’s reign was 64 years long(1837-1901), and is called the Victorian period by the English. England extended and consolidated its empire during this period. (see figure).

   The Queen governed with a balance between two parties, which peacefully turned the power: the torys (conservatives), who defended the authority of the king over the Parliament, and the whigs (liberals), who were in favour of the Parliament’s supremacy.

   Victoria I tried to solve three problems:

   + An electoral reform, to achieve great voter access.

   + An economic reform, which repealed the law about cereals (which blocked wheat import). Free commerce was allowed, which reduce daily costs and developed industry and trade.

   + Ireland question. In 1921 Ireland became full independent under the name Eire or Irish Free State.

   -FRANCE. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte ended the Second French Republic with a coup d’état on 2 December 1851, acquiring state powers and self-proclaiming Emperor of the French under the name of Napoleon III. He beautified the country and organized two exhibitions in 1858 and 1867.

   He leaded the FrancoPrussian war, where he was defeated in Sedan. With his defeat, the Second French Empire fell and the Third Republic was proclaimed.

   2. Write if these facts are refering to Great Britain or France:

They lived in the Victorian period

Ended with the Second Republic

There were torys and whigs

Made an electoral reform

A coup d’état in 1851

Free commerce was allowed

He took the name Napoleon III

Organized two exhibitions

     3. Italian and Germany unity

   - ITALY. The Congress of Vienna divided the Italian peninsula in seven states: the kingdom of Sardinia, the Two Sicilies, the Lombard Beneto kingdom, the Church States, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Duchy of Parma and Modena

   The Italians wanted an united country, and the king of Sardinia, Charles Albert, was in charge of the project. His son Victor Emmanuel II of Saboy, aided by Garibaldi and the minister Cavour, followed him (see side figure).

   After many wars the Italian Parliament, placed in Turin, proclaimed Victor Emmanuel II king of Italy, and his troops occupy the city of Rome. In the Latteran Treaty the Vatican City State was funded.

   Bismark made three wars to achieve Germany unification:

   + The Dannish-Prussian war against the king of Denmark, who must give Holstein and Schleswig.

   + War against Austria, whose ruler Francisco José I was defeated in Sadowa. Prussia acquired the Duchy of Elba and other regions.

   + War against France, where the German army conquested Alsace and Lorraine, defeating the French in Sedan and haciendo prisionero a Napoleón III.

    4. Write if the following facts are about the unification of Italy or about Germany:

The peninsula had seven states

King Charles Albert was in charge

The diplomat Bismark

The Great Duchy of Tuscany

William I of Prussia

The tactician Moltke

Víctor Manuel II of Saboy

Dannish-Prussian war against Denmark

     5. Hispanic peninsula

   During the second half of the XIX century we differenciate three periods in Spain:

   - ISABEL II. (see side figure). She succeeded Ferdinand VII when she was three years old. The regent was her mother, queen Cristina de Borbon. The country was divided in two sides: the liberals, who supported queen Cristina, and the carlists, supporters of Charles (Carlos)-brother of Ferdinand VII- and of the absolute monarchy. One of the liberal ministers was Mendizábal, who conceived the disentailment of church properties, which was a failure. Chuch properties were sold at very low prizes, and large areas of cultivated lands were left without supervision. Due to these failure, Mendizábal had to resign.

   The Carlist civil war ended with the Vergaras offer of peace, and the carlist army recognized the sovereignty of queen Isabel. General Espartero, a liberal, was Spain regent.

   - FIRST REPUBLIC. Generals Serrano, Prim and admiral Topete leaded 1869 revolution, which deposed Isabel. They formed a provisional government and gave the power to Amadeo I of Saboy, son of Víctor Manuel II of Italy.

   The Courts proclaimed the First Spanish Republic (1874), which only lasted eleven months and had a series of presidents: Figueras, Pi y Margall, Salmerón and Castellar. Facing the Republicans’ division and weakness, general Pavía staged a coup d’état and formed a provisional government, with general Serrano as head.

   - ALFONSO XII. Most of the country desired a Borbon monarchy, and general Martínez Campos proclaimed Alfonso XII, son of Isabel II, king of Spain. The most important names of the period were Cánovas, leader of the conservative party, and Sagasta, leader of the liberals. 1876 Constitution, with a conciliatory spirit, was written.   

    6. Answer if the following items are about Isabel II, the First Republic or Alfonso XII:

1868 Republic

Mª Cristina de Borbon was regent

Martínez Campos proclaimed him king

Cánovas was a conservative

Mendizábal planned a disentailment

Two provisional governments

Vergara’s peace

They wrote 1876 Constitution

There were four presidents

     7. The United States and Latin America

   - - THE UNITED STATES. It continued growing with new lands: Louisiana (bought too Napoleon); Florida (bought to Spain); California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas (gave up by Mexico) and Alaska (bought to Russia).

   The War of Succession was between the North States, industrials and democrats, in favour of the abolition of slavery; and the South states, agricultural and aristocrat, who needed slaves for their cotton and sugar cane crops. Abraham Lincoln defeated the South states and slavery was abolished in the Union.

   Since then, progress was fast and uninterrumpted, thanks to a good political and industrial organization, becoming a great world power at the end of the XIX and the first world power in the XX century.

   - LATIN AMERICA. During the XIX century the continent suffered frequent coups d’état from generals and new governments of personal or dictatorial type. There were civil wars in Mexico and Argentina.

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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
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