First half of the XIX century

   1. The Congress of Vienne and the Holy Alliance

   - THE CONGRESS OF VIENNE. Its main objective is to reorganize Europe’s political map, altered by Napoleon. The more influential nations in the Congress were Austria, Prussia, Russia and England. Other countries, like Spain, Sweden and Portugal had less influence (see Congress of Vienne).
   Efforts were made to restore the monarchies which had been destituting during the French Revolution. But the liberals claimed for new written Constitutions, and the nacionalists defended the independence of European countries.

   - THE HOLY ALLIANCE. Its main objective is to prevent revolutionary attempts, provoked by liberals and nacionalists, and even to fight against uprising and riots. An army to help Ferdinand VII to restore the absolute monarchy in Spain, which was deposed in the Riego revolution, was sended from the Congress of Verona.

   2. Write if these events are related to the Congress of Vienne or to the Holy Alliance:

To fight against revolutionary attempts

Spain and Portugal had less influence

To reorganize Europe’s political map

They helped Ferdinand VII

They claimed for written constitutions

    3. Ferdinand VII

   There were two different political orientations in Spain: those who defend tradition and those who wanted to have “new ideas” from the French Revolution. We can observe three different stages:

   - ABSOLUTIST REGIME. 1812 Cádiz Constitution was abolished, and absolutist monarchy was restored.

   -CONSTITUTIONAL TRIENNIUM. It happened a militar revolution started by general Riego and a new constitutional government was introduced, but it only lasted three years.

   - ABSOLUTISM. A French army called The Hundred Thousand Children of St. Louis demolished the liberal regime and imposed again an absolutist one.

   Ferdinand VII wanted his daughter Isabel in the throne and published the Pragmatica sanction, abolishing the Salic law, which excludes women from ruling a country. But Charles, brother of Ferdinand VII, aspired to the throne and funded the carlist party, which later caused many wars.

   4. Choose if these facts are about the absolutist regime, the constitutional triennium or the absolutism:

1812 Constitution was abolished

A French army arrived

Riego’s militar revolution

It only lasted three years

The Hundred Thousand Children of St. Louis

    5. East issues

    At the beginning of the XIX century new problems and wars started in Europe:

   - The weakness and decay of the Turkish empire.

   - Separatist ideas of some politicians in their provinces.

   - Aspirations of the Christian areas subjugated by Muslims.

   - Ambitions of European politicians, who wanted to extend their power and possessions at the cost of Turkey.

   As a consequence, the following events happened:

   + Independence of Greece and Serbia.

   + Independence of Egypt.

   + Crimea war.

   + Turk-Russian war.

   6. Are the following statements true or false:

A decay in Turkey

Christians and Muslims live together

Separatist ideas in Europe

European politicians were ambitious

Independence of Italy

Independence of Egypt

A war in the Caspian sea

A war between Turkey and China

    7. Independence of Latin-America

    During the Independence War started an uprising in America, due to subversive propaganda from French, English, North-Americans and Brailians, whose governments helped the rebels with weapons and money. Revolutionary assemblies and rebel armies were assembled. The most important leaders were:

   - Simón Bolívar, the Liberator, a Spanish military official with Vasques origins (see figure).

   - José San Martín, colonel of the Spanish army and native from Palencia.

   - Antonio José de Sucre, Colombian general.

   We can distingish between two periods in the independence’s :

   + The Spanish Independence War (1808-1814), when Spanish troops defeated all their enemies except Argentina.

   + The reign of Ferdinand VII, with the great defeat in Ayacucho (1824), which caused the loss of the whole Spanish continental America.

   Simón Bolívar, the Liberator, defended his ideal of an unification of all the liberated republics in a big federal state. He summoned the Congress of Panama, but didn’t achieve his objective. Another failed project was the Andes Federation, an attempt to unite the free States by his military feats.

   New World’s territories were divided in different republics: Mexico (in North America); Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica (in Central America); Gran Colombia (Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador), Perú, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina (in South America). Frontiers between countries have originated numerous conflicts.

   8. Answer if te following facts are true or false:

Subversive propaganda

Germany helped the rebels

Simón Bolívar was a colonel

San Martín was from Palencia

Sucre was a Colombian general

Spanish army defeated in Argentina

Ayacucho loss was very important

Bolívar achieved a federal state

He created the Andes Federation

There are conflicts due to the frontiers

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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
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