Napoleon’s empire

   1. Napoleon wars.

   At the time of the Revolution and the Empire many wars were happening. Some times there were originated by France, and other times they were promoted by bordering states.The mos dangerous enemy for France was England, which felt safe by the English Channel and by an enormous fleet leaded by Pitt.

   - THE ALLIANCES. After Belgium ocupation by the French army some alliances were made:

   + First alliance, between England, Spain, Russia, Prussia and Egypt. France was unable to attack England, so it brought the war to Egypt, but the French squad failed.

   + Second alliance, between England, Austria, Russia and Turkey. Napoleon defeated them in the battle of Marengo.

   + Third alliance, between England and Spain. Napoleon tried to invade England, but he was defeated in Trafalgar.

   + Fourth alliance, between England, Prussia, Russia and Sweden. Napoleon proclaimed the Continental Blockade to prevent English trade with Europe, but the measure also harmed French economy.

   + Fifth alliace, between England, Spain, Portugal and Austria. The Spaniards defeated the English in Bailen.

   - RUSSIA CAMPAIGN. Napoleon organized an army of 350.000 men, who attacked Russia. The Russians didn’t present battle, and the French army wasted men and resources in the frozen steppes. The soldiers died of starvation and cold, and only 15.000 men could return.

   - THE FALL OF THE EMPIRE. The conquered countries revealed against Napoleon’s oppression and defeated him in the battle of Leipzig, which was called the Battle of the Nations. Napoleon, abandoned by his generals, abdicated and retired to the island of Elba. But he returned and unlawfully held the power for hundred days, and was defeated again in the battle of Waterloo. (See figure above). Napoleon was made prisioner and was sent to St Helena island, where he died after six years.

   2. Write if the following events are refering to: alliances, Russian campaign or the fall of the Empire.

Soldiers died of starvation and cold

Napoleon brought the war to Egypt

He tried to invade England

He was defeated in Leipzig

He thriumps in the battle of Morengo

An army of 350.000 soldiers

He was defeated in Waterloo

    3. The Independence War

   One of the most glorious episodes of our recent history was the reaction of Spanish people against the French invasion.

   - THE BAYONNE ABDICATIONS. Ferdinand VII was proclaimed king, but his father, Charles IV, wanted to remain in the throne. Napoleon desire was the abdication of both, which would give the crown to one of his brothers. He forced Ferdinand to go to Bayona, where his parents were. Ferdinand renounced to the crown, and his father gave it to Napoleon, who became the owner of Spain. He named his brother Joseph Bonaparte– whose nickname was Pepe Bottle– king .

   -THE SECOND OF MAY. The Spaniards prevented the leaving of infant Francisco’s chariot to France. This caused a riot. The Mamelukes- the French elite troop- shooted the Spaniards. From 2 to 5 May inhabitants from Madrid were executed by firearms. The cruel scene was depicted by Goya in his painting The Third of May 1808. (See Goya self-portrait).

   - CENTRAL AND PROVINCIAL BOARDS. In each province a board was organized to fight for freedom. They rose armies and raised money to buy weapons. After that, a Central board was constituted to coordinate all these efforts. It was leaded by the Count of Floridablanca and lasted until the arrival of the Regency.
   The first Regency was presided by the bishop of Orense, who convened the Cadiz Courts. They wrote 1812 Constitution.

   4. Write if the following facts are about the Bayonne abdications, the second of May or the central and provincial boards:

Prevented the leaving of Francisco

They met in Bayona

They rose armies

Ferdinand abdicated in his father

Many Madrid inhabitants were executed

Charles IV gave the crown to Napoleon

Leaded by Floridablanca

The event was painted by Goya

    5. Spanish resistance

    - BAILEN. French general Dupont received orders for the occupation of Andalucia, but was defeated in the battle of Bailen, in Sierra Morena, by Spanish general Castaños. Dupont gave his sword to the Spanish general, and the battle had an enormous importance. (See Rendition of Bailen).

   - ZARAGOZA. The city was besieged two times. During the first attack, the French lift the siege without entering the city. French artillery had destroyed the walls. During the second siege, Zaragoza inhabitants suffered from famine and pest, and died in number of hundreds. At last, Zaragoza surrendered.

   - GERONA. It suffered three sieges. At the end of the third, 1.500 survivors surrended to 50.000 French soldiers.

   - VITORIA. Spanish situation improved by the arrival of English reinforcements. General Wellington defeated the French in Arapiles (near Salamanca) and in Vitoria. The French were forced to return to France. The war was ended.

   6. Are these events related to Bailen, Zaragoza, Gerona or Vitoria?:

It suffered three sieges

Help from the English

The French destroyed the walls

Dupont leaded the French army

General Wellington was the leader

General Castaños triumphed

They suffered from famine and pest

Only 1.500 survivors

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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
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