The Crusades

   1. The Crusades

   The Crusades were expeditions organized by Christians of the West, who had the protection of the Popes, with the objective to free the Holy Sepulchre as well as defend and found the kingdom of Jerusalem.

   What were the causes of this movement?

   - The great religiosity of Europe.

   - The need to liberate Jerusalem from Turkish rule, which denied the entry to the city of Christian pilgrims who wished to visit.

   - The adventurous and chivalrous spirit of the age.

   - The attractiveness that the East had at the time.

   2. Indicate whether each statement is true or false:

They sought to liberate Rome

They were expeditions organized by Christians

They wanted to rescue the Holy Sepulchre

The Normans were denied the entry

There was great religiosity in Europe

They had an adventurous spirit

The attractiveness that the East had at the time

In order to found the kingdom of Jerusalem

    3. The Major Crusades

   They were conducted during the XI, XII and XIII centuries and the main eight were:

   - FIRST CRUSADE. Pope Urban II proposed the re-conquest of the Holy Sepulchre. The people shouted: "God willing, God willing!" Two groups were organized: the Crusade of the poor, formed by people without weapons and without preparation - this group failed - and the other one was formed by warriors, which took Jerusalem by assault. Godfrey, who was leading, was proclaimed the king of Jerusalem.

   - SECOND CRUSADE. The Emperor of Germany and the King of France participated, who besieged the city of Damascus but left without taking it.

   - THIRD CRUSADE. They went to recover Jerusalem, which had fallen in the hands of Saladin the Muslim. They were not able to conquer the city, however, Saladin authorized the entry to the city by Christians as pilgrims.

   - FOURTH CRUSADE. Their goal was to re-conquer Jerusalem, but the Venetians changed route and went towards Constantinople, which fell under the power of the Crusaders and established the Latin Empire.

   - FIFTH CRUSADE. Given past failures, they thought that this was due to the sins of the Crusaders and so they organized the Children's Crusade, which was composed by children, that is, pure and sinless human beings. However, it did not produce positive results. Hundreds of children were captured by the Turks and reduced to slavery. Another maritime expedition was organized but also failed.

   - SIXTH CRUSADE. Frederick II, Emperor of Germany, led this crusade and instead of fighting, he organized negotiations and won the cities of Jerusalem, Nazareth and Bethlehem. But he had little guard and the Turks once again took them.

   - SEVENTH CRUSADE. It was led by St. Louis, King of France; however, due to epidemics and hunger, the Crusaders had to surrender.

   - EIGHTH CRUSADE. It was the most miserable of all. They suffered a terrible epidemic while besieging Tunis and King St. Louis died.

   4. Answer to which Crusade the statement refers to:

Jerusalem was in the hands of Saladin

Pope Urban II proposed it

They went to Constantinople

They besieged the city of Damascus

The crusade of the poor failed

They founded the Latin Empire

The Emperor of Germany

Saladin allowed the entry of the pilgrims

The Children's Crusade was organized

It was the most miserable Crusade

Instead of fighting, they negotiated

They obtained Jerusalem, Nazareth and Bethlehem

They suffered hunger and epidemics

They besieged Tunis

Hundreds of children were enslaved

King St. Louis died

    5. Consequences of the Crusades

   From the military point of view, the Crusades were a failure because they did not conquer the Holy Places or created the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

   But POLITICALLY, they caused the decline of feudalism, since the nobles and gentlemen who intervened were led to ruins and this favored the development of a new social class: the bourgeoisie, the owners of money.

   From the ECONOMIC point of view, the Crusades boosted trade and favored agriculture by introducing unknown plants in Europe, such as saffron and the silkworm. Industry was also promoted.

    6. Indicate whether these facts relate to a military, political or economic aspect:

Trade was boosted

The Crusades were a failure

The decline of feudalism

Unknown plants brought

The nobles and gentlemen were ruined

They did not conquer the Holy Land

The bourgeoisie was created

Industry was encouraged

The kingdom of Jerusalem was not created

They favored agriculture

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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
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