History of Greece
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   1. The history of Greece

   Studying the history of Greece is like knowing the origins of our civilization. The Greek spirit has been the starting point for all the subsequent culture. Thus, we are their direct heirs.

   We can distinguish several periods:

   - The Period of invasions: There were three waves of people that arrived to Greece. the Ionians in 3000 B.C., then the Achaeans and finally the Dorians in 1200 B.C.

   - The period of colonization: because of the pressure of the Dorians, in the VIII century B.C., many Ionians and Achaeans settled in Asia Minor, Sicily, Magna Graecia (Southern Italy), Marseille (South of France) and Ampurias (Spain).

   - The period of splendor: Darius, the great Persian king, had three Greco-Persian wars against the Greek cities of the Peloponnese, which ended with a definitive triumph of Sparta. This period excelled with Pericles.

   - The Hellenistic period: the King of Macedonia, Alexander the Great, easily defeated the weakened Greek cities. But the successors of Alexander fought each other for the succession to the throne and Rome conquered the entire Persian Empire in the II century B.C.

   2. Indicate if these sentences refer to the invasions, to the colonization, to the splendor or to the Hellenistic period

The Greco-Persian wars


They created Ampurias in Spain


Alexander the Great conquered Greece


The Ionians and Achaeans arrived


Wars with Darius the Persian


Rome conquered the Persian Empire


The Dorians arrived


They arrived to Marseille


The Peloponnesian War


    3. Greek cities

   Greece did not become a unified state. Each city was an independent nation. Athens and Sparta stood out.

   - Athens was located in the Attica peninsula with a magnificent Port: the Piraeus. This helped that the Athenians were sailors and traders.

   For over a hundred years, Greece was ruled by the archons, who were chief magistrates belonging to the nobility and overlords of the city administration.

   Farmers and poor people revolted and entrusted to Solon the creation of a code of laws (594 B.C.). This code forbade debtors were sold as slaves and the Four Hundred was organized.

   After another revolt, the power fell into the hands of Cleisthenes who was inventor of the Athenian democracy, by which all people (rich or poor) could occupy any public office, because all people were equal before the law and have the same rights.

   - Sparta was located in the region of Laconia. The Spartan citizen was a soldier trained for war. The laws of Lycurgus were aimed at forging warriors who die for Sparta and women who were mothers of soldiers.

   At the beginning, Sparta was ruled by two kings who were military, political and religious leaders of the city. Then the power fell into the hands of the five ephors and the Council of Ancients.

   4. Indicate if these sentences refer to Athens or to Sparta:

It was located in Laconia


In the Attica peninsula


They were sailors and traders


They were warriors


It was ruled by two kings


It was ruled by the Archons


They had the laws of Lycurgus


Solon create a code of laws


They created the democracy


The women were mothers of soldiers


    5. The Age of Pericles

   After the victory of the Greeks against the Persians in Greco-Persian wars, the city that best used the win was Athens. An authentic maritime empire of Athens was formed (see the upper map).

   The city was embellished with big monuments and philosophers and artists came from different places. Undoubtedly, Athens was the most beautiful and richest city in the world. These years (the second half of the V century B.C.) are known as the Age of Pericles.

   He came from a noble Athenian family but he was not a king or a leader. He only was one of ten strategists, that is, he was an army general. He was tenacious, intelligent and eloquent and was elected strategist during fifteen consecutive years. All his views were taken into account by other strategists and magistrates. Therefore, we can say that he managed the Athenian politics.

   6. Answer if these sentences are true or false:

Persians won the war


Athens used the victory


Philosophers and artists came


Sparta was the most beautiful city


Pericles came from a poor family


He was a strategist


Pericles was a great king


He was elected during fifteen years.


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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
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