7. Intellectual knowledge

  1. Concept and judgment

   A concept is an abstract knowledge or a representation of an object. We also call it an “idea”. Perception is a sensible and specific type of knowledge of a particular object. It is acquired by the senses, while a concept is grasped by intelligence, and that is why we say that a concept is a type of intellectual knowledge.

   The sensible perception is the starting point of all knowledge. We should remember this sentence: there is nothing in the intellect that was not first in the senses.

   Concepts are obtained by abstraction. After seeing many tables and many dogs, I understand the general qualities of tables and dogs, so I am able to do an abstraction and form my concept or idea of tables and dogs.

   A judgment is an act of intelligence that consists of affirming or denying an idea from another. For examples: the cat is carnivorous, the Earth is a star, plants do not walk, etc.

   In each of the examples there are two concepts: cat and carnivore; land and star; plants and walking.

   A judgment is not a simple association of ideas; but instead it is a comparison and realization of an affirmation or negation.

 A. Answer by choosing one of these letters: a, b, c. (If the letter turns red, then the answer is correct)

  1. Abstract knowledge is known as a

    a. perception
    b. concept
    c. judgment

  2. Perception is this type of knowledge

    a. sensible
    b. intellectual
    c. imaginative

 3. The starting point of all knowledge is

    a. judgment
    b. perception
    c. concept

 4. Concepts are grasped through

    a. perception
    b. judgment
    c. abstraction

 5. To affirm or negate an idea from another is known as

    a. judgment
    b. perception
    c. concept

 6. A judgment is

    a. an association of ideas
    b. a memory
    c. to make an affirmation or negation

  2. Reasoning

    Reasoning is the act of linking ideas or thoughts to reach a new understanding or conclusion. Reasoning is the ability to think logically and unite a series of ideas or reasons.

  Judgment implies the affirmation or negation of the relationship that exists between two ideas. For example: rocks do not walk.

   But there are certain ideas that we deal with directly and so we reason to affirm or deny them.

   We propose an idea: is atomic energy useful or harmful to humanity? Some may argue that this type of energy generates a lot of power, can move machines and increase productivity. This increased productivity requires less human efforts, which means that is of greater comfort and benefit to humans.

   Others will argue that atomic energy can produce a large explosive force through large pumps. Atomic bombs can generate wars, destruction and misery to humanity.

   So, it can be said that the argument is a set of coherent judgments that are supported and substantiated by one another.

  B. Answer by choosing one of these letters: a, b, c.

  1. Through reasoning ideas are

    a. related
    b. separated
    c. forgotten

  2. Through reasoning we can reach new

    a. concepts
    b. knowledge
    c. senses

 3. Judgment implies the affirmation or negation of

    a. imagination
    b. fantasy
    c. relationship

 4. Rocks do not walk is

    a. a concept
    b. a judgment
    c. an idea

 5. This type of energy can be helpful or harmful

    a. nuclear
    b. mental
    c. emotional

 6. Reasoning is a set of judgments that are

    a. added
    b. isolated
    c. consistent

  3. Intellectual knowledge

   Sensible knowledge is common to humans and animals. This type of knowledge refers to the concrete, material, present and particular.

  Intellectual knowledge is unique to humans. This type of knowledge refers to:

a) The abstract, such as science and theories.

b) Relationships between objects, as relations between causes and effects.

c) The past and the future. Not only do you think about the present, but also the past and the future.

d) The values of truth, beauty and goodness of people and things.

e) The spiritual, such as the soul and God.

    It can be said that intelligence is the ability to judge correctly, to solve problems and find the truth.

   Intelligence may be general and spatial. Some people solve problems in many fields, while others have skills in a particular field such as mathematics.

  C. Answer by choosing one of these letters: a, b, c.

  1. Men and animals have this type pf knowledge

    a. intellectual
    b. imaginary
    c. sensible

  2. Sensible knowledge refers to what is

    a. concrete
    b. abstract
    c. spiritual

 3. What is present and particular is part of this type of knowledge

    a. intellectual
    b. sensible
    c. abstract

 4. What is abstract is part of this type of knowledge

    a. sensible
    b. intellectual
    c. particular

 5. Causes and effects are a characteristic of this type of knowledge

    a. intellectual
    b. sensible
    c. concrete

 6. Values are a characteristic of this type of knowledge

    a. specific
    b. sensible
    c. intellectual

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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
Plaza Playa de Aro, 3, 1º DO 44002-TERUEL