7. Intellectual knowledge
1. Concept and judgment
A concept is an abstract knowledge or a representation of an object. We also call it an “idea”. Perception is a sensible and specific type of knowledge of a particular object. It is acquired by the senses, while a concept is grasped by intelligence, and that is why we say that a concept is a type of intellectual knowledge.
The sensible perception is the starting point of all knowledge. We should remember this sentence: there is nothing in the intellect that was not first in the senses.
Concepts are obtained by abstraction. After seeing many tables and many dogs, I understand the general qualities of tables and dogs, so I am able to do an abstraction and form my concept or idea of tables and dogs.
A judgment is an act of intelligence that consists of affirming or denying an idea from another. For examples: the cat is carnivorous, the Earth is a star, plants do not walk, etc.
In each of the examples there are two concepts: cat and carnivore; land and star; plants and walking.
A judgment is not a simple association of ideas; but instead it is a comparison and realization of an affirmation or negation.