1. Philosophy

  1. Knowledge vulgar, scientific and philosophical

    Men have different knowledge, common or vulgar, obtained by sight, hearing and other senses, in a natural way, without study and without knowing about the causes.  Scientific knowledge is the rational explanation of why things happen. It explain the causes of the things, and why they happen. It is known as the general law.

       Philosophical knowledge is deeper than scientifical and tries to explain the final cause.

      In other words: common knowledge put the focus in the why of the things, scientific knowledge answer the questions, and philosophical knowledge try to explain the final causes of human intelligence.

       Example: a farmer knows by his experience that a certain field is better than other for cereals. A scientist knows the field is good for cereals because he analyses its elements in a laboratory. A philosopher asked himself why we must trust in scientific laws. Are them safe or constant?

      Other example: an ill man has a headache. The doctor knows why is he ill and the cause of his pain. A philosopher asked: Why is the cause of the pain in the world?

  A) Choose the correct answer: a, b, c.

  1. Common knowledge is acquired by

    a. rational explanations
    b. senses
    c. final causes

  2. A rational explanation is based on the

    a. scientific knowledge
    b. philosophical knowledge
    c. common knowledge

 3. The deepest knowledge is the

    a. common
    b. scientific
    c. philosophical

 4. It pretends to explain the last cause of knowledge

    a. common
    b. scientific
    c. philosophical

 5. The one that explains why things are the way they are is the

    a. philosophical knowledge
    b. scientific knowledge
    c. common knowledge

 6. The knowledge which asks about the existence of pain is the

    a. philosophical
    b. scientific
    c. common

  2. Definition of Philosophy

      - Philosophy means “love to wisdom” In Latin, philo= love and sophy= wisdom. Some Greeks considered themselves wise men (Sophos), but Pythagoras preferred to be called philosopher, the one who wants to be wise.

      - Philosophy also means the science of last causes. There are proximate causes and last causes. Experimental sciences, as Physics, Chemicals and Geology, try to find the proximate ones. But Philosophy searches for the further, harder causes.

      -Philosophy can be defined as an attempt to give a last rational explanation of the world and the ideas. Is an explanation because clarify arguments; is rational because reason is utilized; is the last one because is deeper.  

     - Philosophy is also a way to live. We frequently hear the expression “to take things philosophically” It means to live calmly and understand facts and events.

  B) Choose the correct answer: a, b, c.

  1. Philosophy means

    a. to follow Pythagoras
    b. to know about Physics and Chemicals
    c. love to wisdom

  2. Who wanted to be a wise man?

    a. Pythagoras
    b. Nadal
    c. Ronaldo

 3. What knowledge explains the causes of things?

    a. Philosophy
    b. Science
    c. Geology

 4. The science of the last causes is the

    a. Philosophy
    b. Physics
    c. Geology

 5. The last and rational cause of the world is the

    a. Science
    b. Philosophy
    c. Physics


 6. Which could be a way of life?

    a. Science
    b. Physics
    c. Philosophy

  3. Division of Philosophy

    Philosophy can be divided in three areas: natural, rational and moral.

    Natural philosophy studies natural beings. Inside that term we distinguish between Psychology, or the study of human soul, Cosmology, or study of Cosmos, Metaphysics, or study of the being in general terms and Theodicy, or study of God.

    Inside rational philosophy we separate between Logic, or the study of knowledge by itself, and the theory of knowledge that studies knowledge in relation with an object. The last is frequently called Epistemology, Gnoseology or Criteriology.

     In Moral Philosophy we distinguish between Ethics or the study of human behaviour- according to moral and conscience and Law, which studies human behaviour according judicial laws and society.

  C) Choose the correct answer: a, b, c.

  1. In Philosophy, we can distinguish between

    a. natural, rational and moral
    b. Psychology, Metaphysical y Ethical
    c. Theodicy, Ethical and Law

  2. Ethical belongs to the philosophy called

    a. natural
    b. rational
    c. moral

 3. The study of God is called

    a. Metaphysics
    b. Ethical
    c. Theodicy

 4. The Theory of knowledge is called

    a. Metaphisics
    b. Criteriología
    c. Cosmology

 5. The study of cosmos is the

    a. Cosmology
    b. Teodicea
    c. Psicology

 6. The study of the being is the

    a. Ethics
    b. Metafísica
    c. Cosmology

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®Arturo Ramo García.-Record of intellectual property of Teruel (Spain) No 141, of 29-IX-1999
Plaza Playa de Aro, 3, 1º DO 44002-TERUEL